John R. Anderson (Ed.) (1981). Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Erlbaum.

Perkins, D. N., & Gavriel Salomon (1989). Are cognitive skills context-bound? Educational Researcher, february 16-25. fc: am. pdf

Rather short-sighted:

Ellen Winner (1988).The point of words. Children's understanding of metaphor and irony. Harvard UP. 0674681258 'Conceptual domains and the acquisition of metaphor'by Frank C.Keil 1986 treated in Ellen Winner 'The point of words'Ch 4 'Constraints on metaphor comprehension'info

Research showing understanding of metaphor to be a domain-specific skill, not a general one. 'Conceptual domains and the acquisition of metaphor'by Frank C.Keil 1986 treated in Ellen Winner 'The point of words'Ch 4 'Constraints on metaphor comprehension’

David A. Rosenbaum, Richard A. Carlson, and , and Rick O. Gilmore (2001). Acquisition of Intellectual and Perceptual-Motor Skills Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 52 free

Ben Wilbrink (2020). Literature on intelligence blog

Bayley, Nancy (1955). On the growth of intelligence. American Psychologist, 10, 805-818 10.1037/h0043803 pdf scihub Classic.

Binet, Alfred & Simon, Théodore (1916). The development of intelligence in children. (The Binet-Simon Scale).

Bisseret, Noelle (1979). Education, class language and ideology. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Chapter 1: 'Essentialist ideology. Its origins and its scientific form, the theory of natural aptitudes'Section captions:

'Prior to the nineteenth century, the word 'aptitude'designated a contingent reality’

'The first half of the nineteenth century: 'aptitude'becomes an essential hereditary feature: birth of a new ideology justifying social inequalities’

'The second half of the nineteenth century: 'Aptitude'refers to a strictly biological causal process. The word 'becomes a part of everyday language’

'The age of tests: aptitude as a measurable reality. The science of aptitudes as the warrant of a legitimate social order’

'Scientific definitions of the concept of aptitude. A criticism of the relevance of its use in the social sciences. Permanence of a nineteenth pattern of thought’

The chapter starts at p. 6. In Google most pages of this chapter by Bisseret can be read:

Block, N. J., & Gerald Dworkin (Eds) (1976). The IQ controversy. Random House.

reader of articles by. i.a., Walter Lippmann - Lewis M. Terman - Richard C. Lewontin - Arthur R. Jensen - Leon J. Kamin - Noam Chomsky - Richard J. Herrnstein - Carl Bereiter - Christopher Jencks

for the Lippmann-Terman debate see also: Chapman (1988) Schools as sorters [below], and Lee J. Cronbach, 1975, Five decades of public controversy over mental testing. American Psychologist, 30, 1-14

Blum, Jeffrey M. (1978). Pseudoscience and mental ability. Monthly Review Press.

Boring, Edward G. (1923). Intelligence as the tests test it. New Republic, 35, 35-37. pdf

Carroll, John B. (1982). The measurement of intelligence, blz. 29-120 in Sternberg, Robert J., (Ed.): Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(..) the inertia within the profession itself that resulted from complacency about the sufficiency of available methodologies and testing procedures and disquiet about misuses of these procedures made serious inroads on the ability of the testing profession to move forward. Large sectors of the profession were enmeshed in outmoded or at least debatable concepts of human behavior, particularly the assumption that mental abilities are relatively immutable even with extensive and prolonged experience or intervention and, furthermore, that they have almost overpowering genetic determinants.p. 108, quote Brigham” source

Carroll, John B. (1997). Psychometrics, intelligence, and public perception. Intelligence, 24, 25-52. pdf

Chapman, Paul Davis (1988). Schools as sorters. Lewis M. Terman, Applied Psychology, and the Intelligence Testing Movement, 1890-1930. New York: New York University Press.

The Conclusion of the book sums it all up.

Much recent scholarship has consisted of emotionally charged attacks on tests and classification systems. The testing establishment has contributed countless studies, many of them defending the value of tests. Historical studies of testing have concentrated extensively on leadership and ideology. Few have examined how and why intelligence tests and classification systems were actually introduced into the schools and what difference they made in the lives of students.p. xiii

This study explores the origins of the use of intelligence tests to classify students into ability groups. p. 3

(citing Minton, in Sokal 1987: Psychological testing and American society) Terman’s democratic ideal of a meritocracy based on innate ability was not, in the context of his own times, a bona fide democratic ideal. His legacy of mass intelligence testing served to perpetuate an unjust social order. p. 14

Cooke, Kathy J. (1998). The Limits of Heredity: Nature and Nurture in American Eugenics Before 1915. Journal of the History of Biology, 31, 263-278.

Crano, William D., Kenny, David A., and Campbell, Donald T. (1972). Does intelligence cause achievement? A cross-lagged panel analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 258-275.

Does intelligence cause achievement, or is it the other way around? See also Watkins & Styck 2017.

Cronbach, Lee J., and Suppes, Patrick (Eds.) (1969). Research for tomorrow’s schools: Disciplined inquiry for education. London: Collier-Macmillan Limited.

Chapter 2: American scholars and educational progress: 1855-1958 Education emerges as a field of study 1855-1895: Henry Barnard: The Journal and the United States Office of Education - William T. Harris as Commissioner of Education - Other sources of leadership The heyday of empiricism 1895-1938: Dewey and the promotion of innovation - The Office of Education: a middle-aged bureaucracy - Local surveys and local research bureaus - The humanities in decline - Education separates from the arts and sciences

Promotional activity supplants inquiry 1938-1958: Opposition to standardization and tradition - Research activity as an agent of change

Chapter 3: Some chains of significant inquiry.

Mental tests and pupil classification - Evolutionary theory and the idea of 'fitness'- Mental tests in American schools - Unified intelligence: a concept under attack - Test profiles in college selection Test technology in the service of the individual

The philosopher and the concept of knowledge: Knowledge as the fruit of problem-solving - Educational aims suggested by the pragmatic view

Thorndike’d impact on the teaching of arithmetic: Principles of learning - The psychology of arithmetic - Teaching of arithmetic

The politics of education: a legacy of historical inquiry: Economic interests as a force in educational policy - Effects on the thinking of schoolmen


Dirkzwager, A. (1966). Intelligentie en schoolprestaties. Een empirisch onderzoek. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger. Proefschrift.

We moeten hieruit de conclusie trekken dat schoolprestaties in belangrijke mate onafhankelijk zijn van de intelligentie van de leerlingen; in ieder geval wanneer we beiden op korte termijn beschouwen, wanneer het ons primair om verschillen tussen leerlingen uit eenzelfde schoolklas gaat en wanneer we over de schoolprestaties in het eerste trimester handelen. Deze conclusie is primair van belang voor hen die bij de dagelijkse gang van het onderwijs betrokken zijn of daarover theoretiseren: het is niet de intelligentie van de leerlingen die het directe effect van de onderwijs-inspanning bepaalt; ter verklaring van verschillen wat de effectiviteit van het onderwijs op korte termijn betreft moet naar andere gronden gezocht worden

Op langere termijn hangt, zo blijkt uit het longitudinaal onderzoek, de schoolloopbaan van de leerling wel samen met zijn intelligentie. We schreven dit toe aan het feit dat de intelligentie een van de meest constante persoonlijkheidskenmerken is en dat een lage intelligentie derhalve een steeds aanwezige handicap is, waarvan, over een langere periode, het effect duidelijker is dan van in de tijd meer fluctuerende variabelen. De absolute waarden van de betreffende correlaties zijn echter niet zo hoog, dat we de intelligentie de belangrijkste factor voor het schoolsucces durven noemen. [p. 122]

Ebel, Robert L. (1963). The social consequences of educational testing. Reprinted in Anne Anastasi (1966). Testing problems in perspective. Twenty-fifth anniversary volume of topical readings from the invitational conference on testing problems.. American Council on Education.

Consider first, then, the danger that educational testing may place an indelible stamp of inferiority on a child, ruin his self-esteem and educational motivation, and determine his social status as an adult.Most of us here assembled are well aware of the fact that there is no direct, unequivocal means for measuring permanent general capacity for learning. It is not even clear to many of us that, in the state of our current understanding of mental functions and the learning process, any precise and useful meaning can be given to the concept of 'permanent general capacity for learning’. We know that all intelligence tests now available are direct measures only of achievement in learning, including learning how to learn, and that inferences from scores on those tests to some native capacity for learning are fraught with many hazards and uncertainties. But many people who are interested in education do not know this. Many of them believe that native intelligence has been clearly identified and is well understood by expert psychologists. They believe that a person’s IQ is one of his basic, permanent attributes, and that any good intelligence test will measure it with a high degree of precision. They do not regard an IQ simply as another test score, a score that may vary considerably depending on the particular test used and the particular time when the person was tested. p. 21 in Anastasi The concept of fixed general intelligence, or capacity for learning, is a hypothetical concept. At this stage in the development of our understanding of human learning, it is not a necessary hypothesis. Socially, it is not now a useful hypothesis. One of the important things test specialists can do to improve the social consequences of educational testing is to discredit the popular conception of the IQ. Wilhelm Stern, the German psychologist who suggested the concept originally, saw how it was being overgeneralized and charged one of his student coming to America to 'kill the IQ’. Perhaps we would be well advised, even at this late date, to renew our efforts to carry out his wishes. p. 22 in Anastasi

Ericsson, K. Anders (2018). Intelligence as Domain-Specific Superior Reproducible Performance pp 85-100 in Sternberg, Robert J., The nature of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press. book online

… the standard practice of selecting children and adolescents for future advanced-level education based on the traditional tests of intelligence needs to be reconsidered, given their lack of relation to performance among skilled performers.p. 97

French, Joseph L., & Hale, Robert L. (1990). A History of the Development of Psychological and Educational Testing, pp. 3-28 in Reynolds, Cecil R., & Kamphaus, Randy W. Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: intelligence and achievement. London: The Guilford Press. book info

Eysenck, H. J. / Leon Kamin (1981). Intelligence: The battle for the mind. Pan Psychology.

Gould, Stephen Jay (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton.

Gould doesn’t really consider the impact of ideas of intelligence on education; it is intelligence testing that gets debunked here. My take on the book: Gould is right. He might be mistaken in some technical details of testing and factor analysis, but what the heck. Important contribution to the literature critical of psychological testing in the US.

Hadow, Sir W. H. (chair) (1924). Board of Education. Report of the consultative committee on psychological tests of educable capacity and their possible use in the public system of education. London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office The Committee’s Report pp. 1-145. Appendices 146-238 (a.o. by Cyril Burt) Full text

Tijdsbeeld voor Engeland, toch iets anders dan de VS. Reception of the Binet-Simon tests in England. Thinking on intelligence and abilities. Fascinating.

Hanson, F. Allan (1993). Testing testing. Social consequences of the examined life. University of California Press.;brand=ucpress free online

Hoffmann, Banesh (1962/78). The tyranny of testing. Crowell-Collier. Reprint 1978. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Jarvin, Linda, & Sternberg, Robert J. (2003). Alfred Binet’s contributions as a paradigm for impact in psychology. Chapter 3 in Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.) (2003). Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Erlbaum. [p. 97] google.books

Unfortunately, the American developers of his work believed in fixed IQ and substantially modified Binet’s original ideas and intentions. p. 97

Kaufman, Scott Barry (2013). Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined. Basic Books.

Kevles, Daniel J. (1985). In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. info

And had he [Galton] been more self-aware he might have understood that his proto-eugenic pronouncements celebrated the social milieu—and met the psychic needs—of Francis Galton. p. 4

Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe (2000). An Elusive Science: The Troubling History of Education Research. University of Chicago Press. info

Lemann, Nicholas (1999). The big test. The secret history of the American meritocracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. interview Lemann

Maas, Han L. J. van der -, Kan, K. -J., & Borsboom, D. (2014). Intelligence is what the intelligence test measures. Seriously. Journal of Intelligence, 2, 12-15. pdf

Nisbett, Richard E. (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York, NY: Norton. info

Meier, Scott T. (1994). The chronic crisis in psychological measurement and assessment. A historical survey. Academic Press. info

Psychologists interpreted Binet’s results as evidence of an intelligence factor, which Spearman labeled g. Noting the intercorrelations of different components of intelligence tests, psychologists assumed that individuals applied g in all domains, g was assumed to be a hereditary factor, thereby largely stable and immune to situational influences. It was a psychological trait. Thus, intelligence testing, which came to be the model and standard for all psychological testing, emphasized the importance of enduring psychological attributes—traits—over environmental influences. p. 17

Peng Peng Rogier A. Kievit (2020). The Development of Academic Achievement and Cognitive Abilities: A Bidirectional Perspective. Child Development Perspectives open access

Prinsen, B. A. (1935). Intellectmetingen bij kinderen. Bijdrage tot een vergelijkend onderzoek van stad en platteland. (proefschrift) online

Onderzoek met 192 plattelandsschoolkinderen, met Binet-testjes.

Ravitch, Diane (2000). Left back. A century of battles over school reform. A Touchstone Book.

Ritchie, Stuart & Tucker-Drob, Elliot (2018). How much does education improve intelligence? A meta-analysis. Psychological Science preprint. Abstract:

Scarr, Sandra (1997). Behavior-Genetic and Socialization theories of intelligence: Truce and reconciliation. pdf In Sternberg, Robert J. & Grigorenko, Elena (Eds.) (1997). Intelligence, heredity, and environment. (pp 3-41) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Contents and abstracts

Selden, Steven (2005). Transforming Better Babies into Fitter Families: archival resources and the history of American eugenics movement. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society

The complex behaviors thought to be determined by one’s heredity included being generous, jealous, and cruel. In today’s context, the popular media often interpret advances in molecular genetics in a similarly reductive and determinist fashion. This paper argues that such a narrow interpretation of contemporary biology unnecessarily constrains the public in developing social policies concerning complex social behavior ranging from crime to intelligence.from the abstract

Snow, Richard E., with Yalow, Eleana (1982). Education and intelligence, blz. 493-584 in Sternberg, Robert J., (Ed.): Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Not online] [Reprinted from Patrick Suppes (Ed.) (1978). Impact of Research on Education: Some Case Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Education.

Sutherland, Gillian (1984). Ability, Merit, and Measurement: Mental Testing and English Education 1880-1940. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thorndike, Edward L. (1911). Individuality. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Quite interesting! online Key publication. Looks a lot like Blueprint by Robert Plomin. Hm.

The differences exist at birth and commonly increase with progress toward maturity. Individuality is already clearly manifest in children of school age.p. 7

Turkheimer, Eric (1998). Heritability and Biological Explanation. Psychological Review, 105, 782-791. pdf

Watkins, Marley W., and Styck, Kara M. (2017). A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis of Psychometric Intelligence and Achievement in Reading and Math. Journal of Intelligence Does intelligence cause achievement, or is it the other way around? See also Crano, Kenny & Campbell 1972.

Wilbrink, Ben (1997). Assessment in historical perspective. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 23, 31-48. page

Wilbrink, Ben (March 2020). Intelligentie in historisch perspectief. [Intelligence in historical perspective] Van Twaalf to Achttien.

Scott Barry Kaufman (Feb 28, 2019). When does intelligence peak? Maybe that's not even the right question. Scientific American blog Refers to a paywalled study by Hartshorne and Germine, 2015.

Joshua K. Hartshorne, Laura T. Germine (First Published March 13, 2015) When Does Cognitive Functioning Peak? The Asynchronous Rise and Fall of Different Cognitive Abilities Across the Life Span Psychological Science abstract My question: how does this 'peaking'in later life depend on one’s schooling.

Phillip L. Ackerman (2000). Domain-Specific Knowledge as the "Dark Matter" of Adult Intelligence: Gf/Gc, Personality and Interest Correlates. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Volume 55, Issue 2, 1 March 2000, Pages P69-P84, open

Stuart Ritchie (2015). Intelligence: All that matters. info [nog aanschaffen, eBook kost bijna niets; lijkt me een mooi boek om iedereen aan te bevelen die een kort en goed overzicht wil over intelligentie]

Linda Gottfredson (1997). Mainstream Science on Intelligence: An Editorial With 52 Signatories, History, and Bibliography. Editorial in 1997 Intelligence, 24, 13-23 pdf Original statement was in The Wallstreet Journal, December 13, 1994. See also: Wikipedia

Robert J. Sternberg (2010). College Admissions for the 21st Century Harvard University Press. isbn 9780674048232 review

My summary: this is an intriguing exercise in fair college admissions. That is why I mention the book here.

Lee J. Cronbach (1990). Essentials of psychological testing. Harper and Row. isbn 0060414189

See especially Ch. 9 Influences on intellectual development pp 320-369.

Joan N. Burstyn (1980). Victorian education and the ideal of womanhood. Croom Helm, isbn 0709901399

H. Warren Button & Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. (1989 second edition). History of education and culture in America. Prentice Hall. isbn 0133901629 #reference Phillip L. Ackerman (2018). Intelligence as Potentiality and Actuality. pp 1-14 in Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (2018). The nature of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. info The whole book! :

Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (2018). The nature of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. info Read the whole book:


  1. Intelligence as Potentiality and Actuality pp 1-14 By Phillip L. Ackerman This is a key publication connecting IQ and expertise of adults and adolescents. Yes! It is pretty ridiculous to test adults on IQ without considering their expertise in law, music, carpentry, whatever. Ackerman does not discuss its implications for claims of high heritabilities of IQ for adult, however. .
    Ever since Binet and Simon published the rst modern scales to measure child intelligence, the fundamental purpose of intelligence assessment has been for prediction ( .. ) Once one understands this fundamental issue in the study of intelligence, several key concepts must be considered, as follows:
    • First, intelligence is, more or less, contextually (and culturally) bounded. ( .. )
    • Second, intelligence is a 'relative' or normative construct. ( .. )
    • Third, intelligence is dynamic. ( .. )
    • Fourth ( .. ) one can make a critical distinction between intellience potentiality and intelligence actuality.
    For a conceptual discussion of investment and intellectual development, see Cattell (1971)
    understanding of adult intelligence is woefully incomplete. Assessments that give credit to adults for the wide variety of knowledge and skills that they possess have yet to be developed. A high proportion of an adult's day-to-day intellectual life is simply unaccounted for by modern IQ assessments.
  2. Hereditary Ability: g Is Driven by Experience-Producing Drives pp 15-29 By Thomas J. Bouchard Criticisms of Gould's Mismeasure of man. My problem with this chapter: it sums up some literature (useful, of course), it is weak in explaining issues and relations. The key message of Bouchard seems to be: "“the genome impresses itself on the psyche largely by influencing the character, selection, and impact of experience during development” (Bouchard et al., 1990a. p. 228)." Dynamic interaction. I will have to return to the chapter text on that interaction theme.
    I have always thought it was amazing that while psychologists and others heavily emphasize the role of family environment, thus the emphasis on socioeconomic status (SES), in the shaping of intelligence in children, they conducted almost no studies of unrelated individuals reared together (URT). The URT design is the most powerful one to assess this source of in uence. As Figure 2.1 shows, this design suggests a value near zero in adulthood for shared environment (see the asterisks in Figure 2.1), a value below that suggested by twin designs, namely, about 10%. My view is that psychologists have been plagued by confirmation bias and highly resistant to strong inference and refutation of their theories (Bouchard, 2009). The influence of genes on IQ and SES was laid out for us a great many years ago by a brilliant and highly underappreciated psychologist, namely Barbara Burks (Burks, 1938; King, Montanez-Raminez, & Wertheimer, 1996). [Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2009). Strong inference: A strategy for advancing psychological science. In K. McCartney & R. Weinberg (Eds.), Experience and development: A festschrift in honor of Sandra Wood Scarr (pp. 39-59). London: Taylor and Francis. Burks, B. S. (1938). On the relative contributions of nature and nurture to average group differences in intelligence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 24, 276-282. open. King, D. B., Montanez-Raminez, L. M., & Wertheimer, M. (1996). Barbara Stoddard Burks: Pioneer behavioral geneticist and humanitarian. In G. A. Kimble, C. A. Boneay, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology; Volume II (pp. 213-225). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. {eBook in Dutch Royal Library}]
    Galton, in his book Hereditary Genius (1869/1914), formulated the idea that individuals differ from one another in mental ability and noted that the range of differences was quite wide, had consequences for everyday life, and, like all the features of the organic world, was influenced by inheritance or what today we call genetics.
    (note 1) The book was originally published in 1869. In the 1892 edition Galton admit- ted that the title was misleading, that it had little to do with genius, and that it should have been titled Hereditary Ability (Galton, 1892/1962, p. 26). As Darwin noted in the quote that follows, the idea of “intellect,” a xed characteristic or a trait in which individuals did not di er, has a very long history.
  3. Culture, Sex, and Intelligence pp 30-48 Stephen J. Ceci, Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, Wendy M. Williams
    In this chapter we focus on findings from our research on sex differences in academic achievement and what they say about the role of culture in shaping mathematical and spatial cognition. Our research focuses on the policy and educational implications of spatial and mathematical ability that are correlated with psychometric data (e.g., SAT, GRE, NAEP) and raises questions about the nature and development of these differences and what role policy has in ameliorating them.
  4. The Nature of the General Factor of Intelligence pp 49-63 Andrew R. A. Conway, Kristof Kovacs
    In the current chapter, we present an overview of our program of research on the relationship between working memory, executive attention, and intelligence. This line of work has culminated in a new theory of the positive manifold of intelligence and a corresponding new model of the general factor, g. We refer to this new framework as process overlap theory (POT) (Kovacs & Conway, 2016b).
  5. Intelligence in Edinburgh, Scotland: Bringing Intelligence to Life pp 64-84 Ian J. Deary, Stuart J. Ritchie #key
    • Bringing the Scottish Mental Surveys'Intelligence Data to Life
    • Intelligence and the Length of Life
    • The Lifetime Stability of Intelligence Differences
    • What Affects Lifetime Changes in Intelligence Differences?
    • The Heritability of Intelligence
    • Structural Brain Imaging Correlates of Intelligence
    • Sex Differences, Getting on in Life, and Estimating Premorbid Intelligence
    • More Intelligence Research with Good Epidemiological Samples - Educational and Social Policy Matters in Intelligence - Questions for Future Research
  6. Intelligence as Domain-Specific Superior Reproducible Performance pp 85-100 K. Anders Ericsson
    I will then describe the work on the expert-performance approach and new insights into the structure of acquired expert performance and, in par- ticular, I will review how the correlation between basic cognitive abilities, such as IQ, and performance differs for beginners'and skilled individuals'performance in different domains.
  7. Intelligence, Society, and Human Autonomy pp 101-115 James R. Flynn
    As recently as 10 years ago, a steel chain of ideas dominated the minds of those who studied and measured intelligence. Much of my own contribu- tion has been to break its links and therefore I must describe them in some detail. Arthur Jensen was its best advocate. The enemies of truth tried to silence Jensen. Science progresses not by labeling some ideas as too wicked to be true, but by debating their truth.

    The Steel Chain of Ideas

    Jensen believed that intelligence is something that transcends culture, social history, and even species; a name for certain traits of a properly developed brain that allow us to solve the wide variety of cognitive prob- lems presented in everyday life. He based his beliefs on four pillars: factor analysis, kinship studies, the dominance of g (the general intelligence fac- tor), and the method of correlated vectors.

  8. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences pp 116-129 Howard Gardner, Mindy Kornhaber, Jie-Qi Chen
  9. g Theory pp 130-151 Linda S. Gottfredson #key
    Where psychologists saw individual differences, sociologists saw social inequality. Where psychologists suspected genetic influences on cognitive competence, influential figures in sociology alleged an elite perpetuating itself under the guise of intellectual merit. Career-development psychologists asked how young people choose among different occupations; status-attainment researchers asked what bars the less privileged from entering the most desirable ones. Both theories of occupational attainment pointed to factors the other ignored. One classified occupations horizontally, by field of work; the other ordered them vertically, by prestige. One looked at the nature of work performed and interests rewarded in different occupations; the other only at the socioeconomic benefits flowing to workers in them. Both approaches had venerable histories and vast bodies of evidence, yet contradicted the other’s most fundamental assumptions and conclusions.
  10. Puzzled Intelligence pp 152-166 By Elena L. Grigorenko
    This chapter attempts to juxtapose the field of intelligence with the bourgeoning field of epigenetics
  11. A View from the Brain pp 167-182 Richard J. Haier
  12. Is Critical Thinking a Better Model of Intelligence? pp 183-196 Diane F. Halpern, Heather A. Butler
  13. Many Pathways, One Destination pp 197-214 Alan S. Kaufman
  14. My Quest to Understand Human Intelligence pp 215-229 Scott Barry Kaufman
  15. Individual Differences at the Top pp 230-255 By David Lubinski
  16. The Intelligence of Nations pp 256-269 Richard Lynn
  17. Intelligences about Things and Intelligences about People pp 270-286 John D. Mayer
  18. Mechanisms of Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence and Their Common Dependence on Executive Attention pp 287-307 Zach Shipstead, Randall W. Engle
  19. Successful Intelligence in Theory, Research, and Practice pp 308-322 Robert J. Sternberg [Sternberg on Sternberg, superfluous]

Robert K. Sternberg & Richard K. Wagner (eds) (1994). Mind in context. Interactionist perspectives on human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. isbn 0521422876 info

B. A. Prinsen (1935). Intellectmetingen bij kinderen. Bijdrage tot een vergelijkend onderzoek van stad en platteland. proefschrift Utrecht. scan Momentopnamen, lagere school. Bewerking van de Binet-Simon tests gebruikt. Small sample of 199 children tested. Analysis social economic background pp 26-30. Social class mean IQs higher for higher SES.

Stephen Jay Gould (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton. isbn 0393300560 preface to 2nd edition 1996

A terrible book (and terribly popular on top of that), or is it? Needs to be studied alongside serious criticisms by psychologists. Gould might be right, I am beginning to suspect these days ;-)

Helen Christensen , Philip J. Batterham & Andrew J. Mackinnon (2013). The Getting of Wisdom: Fluid Intelligence Does Not Drive Knowledge Acquisition. Pages 321-331 Published online: 07 Mar 2013 abstract.

Howard Gardner (1985). Frames of mind. The theory of multiple intelligences. London: Heinemann. isbn 0434282456

January, 2022 \ contact ben at at at      

Valid HTML 4.01!