John R. Anderson (Ed.) (1981). Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Erlbaum.

Perkins, D. N., & Gavriel Salomon (1989). Are cognitive skills context-bound? Educational Researcher, february 16-25. fc: am. pdf

Rather short-sighted:

Ellen Winner (1988).The point of words. Children's understanding of metaphor and irony. Harvard UP. 0674681258 ‘Conceptual domains and the acquisition of metaphor’ by Frank C.Keil 1986 treated in Ellen Winner ‘The point of words’ Ch 4 ‘Constraints on metaphor comprehension’ info

Research showing understanding of metaphor to be a domain-specific skill, not a general one. ‘Conceptual domains and the acquisition of metaphor’ by Frank C.Keil 1986 treated in Ellen Winner ‘The point of words’ Ch 4 ‘Constraints on metaphor comprehension’

David A. Rosenbaum, Richard A. Carlson, and , and Rick O. Gilmore (2001). Acquisition of Intellectual and Perceptual-Motor Skills Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 52 free

Ben Wilbrink (2020). Literature on intelligenceblog

Scott Barry Kaufman (Feb 28, 2019). When does intelligence peak? Maybe that's not even the right question. Scientific American blog Refers to a paywalled study by Hartshorne and Germine, 2015.

Joshua K. Hartshorne, Laura T. Germine (First Published March 13, 2015) When Does Cognitive Functioning Peak? The Asynchronous Rise and Fall of Different Cognitive Abilities Across the Life Span Psychological Science abstract My question: how does this ‘peaking’ in later life depend on one’s schooling.

Phillip L. Ackerman (2000). Domain-Specific Knowledge as the "Dark Matter" of Adult Intelligence: Gf/Gc, Personality and Interest Correlates. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Volume 55, Issue 2, 1 March 2000, Pages P69–P84, open

Stuart Ritchie (2015). Intelligence: All that matters. info [nog aanschaffen, eBook kost bijna niets; lijkt me een mooi boek om iedereen aan te bevelen die een kort en goed overzicht wil over intelligentie]

Linda Gottfredson (1997). Mainstream Science on Intelligence: An Editorial With 52 Signatories, History, and Bibliography. Editorial in 1997 Intelligence, 24, 13-23 pdf Original statement was in The Wallstreet Journal, December 13, 1994. See also: Wikipedia

Robert J. Sternberg (2010). College Admissions for the 21st Century Harvard University Press. isbn 9780674048232 review

My summary: this is an intriguing exercise in fair college admissions. That is why I mention the book here.

Lee J. Cronbach (1990). Essentials of psychological testing. Harper and Row. isbn 0060414189

See especially Ch. 9 Influences on intellectual development pp 320-369.

Joan N. Burstyn (1980). Victorian education and the ideal of womanhood. Croom Helm, isbn 0709901399

H. Warren Button & Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. (1989 second edition). History of education and culture in America. Prentice Hall. isbn 0133901629 #reference Phillip L. Ackerman (2018). Intelligence as Potentiality and Actuality. pp 1-14 in Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (2018). The nature of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. info The whole book! :

Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (2018). The nature of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. info Read the whole book:


  1. Intelligence as Potentiality and Actuality pp 1-14 By Phillip L. Ackerman This is a key publication connecting IQ and expertise of adults and adolescents. Yes! It is pretty ridiculous to test adults on IQ without considering their expertise in law, music, carpentry, whatever. Ackerman does not discuss its implications for claims of high heritabilities of IQ for adult, however. .
    Ever since Binet and Simon published the rst modern scales to measure child intelligence, the fundamental purpose of intelligence assessment has been for prediction ( .. ) Once one understands this fundamental issue in the study of intelligence, several key concepts must be considered, as follows:
    • First, intelligence is, more or less, contextually (and culturally) bounded. ( .. )
    • Second, intelligence is a 'relative' or normative construct. ( .. )
    • Third, intelligence is dynamic. ( .. )
    • Fourth ( .. ) one can make a critical distinction between intellience potentiality and intelligence actuality.
    For a conceptual discussion of investment and intellectual development, see Cattell (1971)
    understanding of adult intelligence is woefully incomplete. Assessments that give credit to adults for the wide variety of knowledge and skills that they possess have yet to be developed. A high proportion of an adult's day-to-day intellectual life is simply unaccounted for by modern IQ assessments.
  2. Hereditary Ability: g Is Driven by Experience-Producing Drives pp 15-29 By Thomas J. Bouchard Criticisms of Gould's Mismeasure of man. My problem with this chapter: it sums up some literature (useful, of course), it is weak in explaining issues and relations. The key message of Bouchard seems to be: "“the genome impresses itself on the psyche largely by influencing the character, selection, and impact of experience during development” (Bouchard et al., 1990a. p. 228)." Dynamic interaction. I will have to return to the chapter text on that interaction theme.
    I have always thought it was amazing that while psychologists and others heavily emphasize the role of family environment, thus the emphasis on socioeconomic status (SES), in the shaping of intelligence in children, they conducted almost no studies of unrelated individuals reared together (URT). The URT design is the most powerful one to assess this source of in uence. As Figure 2.1 shows, this design suggests a value near zero in adulthood for shared environment (see the asterisks in Figure 2.1), a value below that suggested by twin designs, namely, about 10%. My view is that psychologists have been plagued by confirmation bias and highly resistant to strong inference and refutation of their theories (Bouchard, 2009). The influence of genes on IQ and SES was laid out for us a great many years ago by a brilliant and highly underappreciated psychologist, namely Barbara Burks (Burks, 1938; King, Montanez-Raminez, & Wertheimer, 1996). [Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2009). Strong inference: A strategy for advancing psychological science. In K. McCartney & R. Weinberg (Eds.), Experience and development: A festschrift in honor of Sandra Wood Scarr (pp. 39–59). London: Taylor and Francis. Burks, B. S. (1938). On the relative contributions of nature and nurture to average group differences in intelligence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 24, 276–282. open. King, D. B., Montanez-Raminez, L. M., & Wertheimer, M. (1996). Barbara Stoddard Burks: Pioneer behavioral geneticist and humanitarian. In G. A. Kimble, C. A. Boneay, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology; Volume II (pp. 213–225). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. {eBook in Dutch Royal Library}]
    Galton, in his book Hereditary Genius (1869/1914), formulated the idea that individuals differ from one another in mental ability and noted that the range of differences was quite wide, had consequences for everyday life, and, like all the features of the organic world, was influenced by inheritance or what today we call genetics.
    (note 1) The book was originally published in 1869. In the 1892 edition Galton admit- ted that the title was misleading, that it had little to do with genius, and that it should have been titled Hereditary Ability (Galton, 1892/1962, p. 26). As Darwin noted in the quote that follows, the idea of “intellect,” a xed characteristic or a trait in which individuals did not di er, has a very long history.
  3. Culture, Sex, and Intelligence pp 30-48 Stephen J. Ceci, Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, Wendy M. Williams
    In this chapter we focus on findings from our research on sex differences in academic achievement and what they say about the role of culture in shaping mathematical and spatial cognition. Our research focuses on the policy and educational implications of spatial and mathematical ability that are correlated with psychometric data (e.g., SAT, GRE, NAEP) and raises questions about the nature and development of these differences and what role policy has in ameliorating them.
  4. The Nature of the General Factor of Intelligence pp 49-63 Andrew R. A. Conway, Kristof Kovacs
    In the current chapter, we present an overview of our program of research on the relationship between working memory, executive attention, and intelligence. This line of work has culminated in a new theory of the positive manifold of intelligence and a corresponding new model of the general factor, g. We refer to this new framework as process overlap theory (POT) (Kovacs & Conway, 2016b).
  5. Intelligence in Edinburgh, Scotland: Bringing Intelligence to Life pp 64-84 Ian J. Deary, Stuart J. Ritchie #key
    • Bringing the Scottish Mental Surveys’ Intelligence Data to Life
    • Intelligence and the Length of Life
    • The Lifetime Stability of Intelligence Differences
    • What Affects Lifetime Changes in Intelligence Differences?
    • The Heritability of Intelligence
    • Structural Brain Imaging Correlates of Intelligence
    • Sex Differences, Getting on in Life, and Estimating Premorbid Intelligence
    • More Intelligence Research with Good Epidemiological Samples - Educational and Social Policy Matters in Intelligence - Questions for Future Research
  6. Intelligence as Domain-Specific Superior Reproducible Performance pp 85-100 K. Anders Ericsson
    I will then describe the work on the expert-performance approach and new insights into the structure of acquired expert performance and, in par- ticular, I will review how the correlation between basic cognitive abilities, such as IQ, and performance differs for beginners’ and skilled individuals’ performance in different domains.
  7. Intelligence, Society, and Human Autonomy pp 101-115 James R. Flynn
    As recently as 10 years ago, a steel chain of ideas dominated the minds of those who studied and measured intelligence. Much of my own contribu- tion has been to break its links and therefore I must describe them in some detail. Arthur Jensen was its best advocate. The enemies of truth tried to silence Jensen. Science progresses not by labeling some ideas as too wicked to be true, but by debating their truth.

    The Steel Chain of Ideas

    Jensen believed that intelligence is something that transcends culture, social history, and even species; a name for certain traits of a properly developed brain that allow us to solve the wide variety of cognitive prob- lems presented in everyday life. He based his beliefs on four pillars: factor analysis, kinship studies, the dominance of g (the general intelligence fac- tor), and the method of correlated vectors.

  8. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences pp 116-129 Howard Gardner, Mindy Kornhaber, Jie-Qi Chen
  9. g Theory pp 130-151 Linda S. Gottfredson #key
    Where psychologists saw individual differences, sociologists saw social inequality. Where psychologists suspected genetic influences on cognitive competence, influential figures in sociology alleged an elite perpetuating itself under the guise of intellectual merit. Career-development psychologists asked how young people choose among different occupations; status-attainment researchers asked what bars the less privileged from entering the most desirable ones. Both theories of occupational attainment pointed to factors the other ignored. One classified occupations horizontally, by field of work; the other ordered them vertically, by prestige. One looked at the nature of work performed and interests rewarded in different occupations; the other only at the socioeconomic benefits flowing to workers in them. Both approaches had venerable histories and vast bodies of evidence, yet contradicted the other’s most fundamental assumptions and conclusions.
  10. Puzzled Intelligence pp 152-166 By Elena L. Grigorenko
    This chapter attempts to juxtapose the field of intelligence with the bourgeoning field of epigenetics
  11. A View from the Brain pp 167-182 Richard J. Haier
  12. Is Critical Thinking a Better Model of Intelligence? pp 183-196 Diane F. Halpern, Heather A. Butler
  13. Many Pathways, One Destination pp 197-214 Alan S. Kaufman
  14. My Quest to Understand Human Intelligence pp 215-229 Scott Barry Kaufman
  15. Individual Differences at the Top pp 230-255 By David Lubinski
  16. The Intelligence of Nations pp 256-269 Richard Lynn
  17. Intelligences about Things and Intelligences about People pp 270-286 John D. Mayer
  18. Mechanisms of Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence and Their Common Dependence on Executive Attention pp 287-307 Zach Shipstead, Randall W. Engle
  19. Successful Intelligence in Theory, Research, and Practice pp 308-322 Robert J. Sternberg [Sternberg on Sternberg, superfluous]

Robert K. Sternberg & Richard K. Wagner (eds) (1994). Mind in context. Interactionist perspectives on human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. isbn 0521422876 info

B. A. Prinsen (1935). Intellectmetingen bij kinderen. Bijdrage tot een vergelijkend onderzoek van stad en platteland. proefschrift Utrecht. scan Momentopnamen, lagere school. Bewerking van de Binet-Simon tests gebruikt. Small sample of 199 children tested. Analysis social economic background pp 26-30. Social class mean IQs higher for higher SES.

Stephen Jay Gould (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton. isbn 0393300560 preface to 2nd edition 1996

A terrible book (and terribly popular on top of that), or is it? Needs to be studied alongside serious criticisms by psychologists. Gould might be right, I am beginning to suspect these days ;-)

Helen Christensen , Philip J. Batterham & Andrew J. Mackinnon (2013). The Getting of Wisdom: Fluid Intelligence Does Not Drive Knowledge Acquisition. Pages 321-331 Published online: 07 Mar 2013 abstract.

Howard Gardner (1985). Frames of mind. The theory of multiple intelligences. London: Heinemann. isbn 0434282456