Ben Wilbrink

See also persoonlijke_verschillen.htm

Stephen M. Downes & Eric Turkheimer (2022). An Early History of the Heritability Coefficient Applied to Humans (1918-1960). Biological Theory volume 17, pages 126-137paywalled

Key publication: open for reading

David S. Moore & David Shenk (2016). The heritability fallacy WIREs Cogn Sci 2016. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1400 pdf

Key publication on the concept of 'heritability' and its misconceptions.

Eric Turkheimer (2011). Still missing. Research in Human Development Volume 8, 2011, Issue 3-4: Gene × Environment Interplay: Genetics, Epigenetics, and Environmental Influences on Development abstract

Nicolas Robette, Emmanuelle Génin & Fran¸oise Clerget-Darpoux- (2022). Heritability: What's the point? What is it not for? A human genetics perspective. Genetica 150,- 199-208 (2022) open access


Arthur R. Jensen (1973). Educability & group differences. Harper & Row. isbn 0060121947 Appendix on heritability 366-375 scans of the book available on the Arthur Jensen site

Key on the position of behavior genetics regarding h2 (heritability).

Jay Joseph (2022). A Reevaluation of the 1990 "Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart" IQ Study January 12, 2022 Human Development, 66, 48-65. open access

Key on twin research based heritability estimates.

Madeline Crosswaite and Kathryn Asbury (2018). Teacher beliefs about the aetiology of individual differences in cognitive ability, and the relevance of behavioural genetics to education. British Journal of Educational Psychology abstract

Theodore M. Porter (2018). Genetics in the madhouse. The unknown history of human heredity.. Princeton UP [UB Leiden Psycho C10.0 536] info and open access to Introductory chapter.

Heritability in the genomics era - concepts and misconceptions. Peter M. Visscher, William G. Hill & Naomi R. Wray. Nature Reviews Genetics volume 9, pages 255-266 (2008) doi:10.1038/nrg2322 abstract

With a box on heritability of intelligence (IQ).

Yulia Kovas and very many othes (2015). Why children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 80, 51-63. open access

D. Zabaneh and others (). A genome-wide association study for extremely high intelligence. Nature.ope access

Han L. J. van der Maas, Conor V. Dolan, Raoul P. P. P. Grasman, Jelte M. Wicherts, Hilde M. Huizenga, and Maartje E. J. Raijmakers (2006). A Dynamical Model of General Intelligence: The Positive Manifold of Intelligence by Mutualism Psychological Review, 113, 842-861. abstract

Ninety-nine independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function include genes associated with brain health and structure (N = 280,360) Gail Davies and very many others preprint

Louis- Lello and others (2017). Accurate Genomic Prediction Of Human Height. open access

Eveline L. de Zeeuw, Eco J.C. de Geus & Dorret I. Boomsma (2015). Meta-analysis of twin studies highlights the importance of genetic variation in primary school educational achievement Trends in Neuroscience and Education 4 (2015) 69-76 view pdf

P. A. Vroon, J. de Leeuw & A. C. Meester (1986). Distributions of intelligence and educational level in fathers and sons. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 137-142. abstract

A. D. de Groot (1980). Vroon's neutraliteit. P. A. Vroon (1980). Wat is richtsnoer: rede of vooroordeel? De Psycholoog, XV, 149-154, 155-158.

Karri Silventoinen and many others (2015). The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits Twin Research and Human Genetics Volume 18 Number 4 pp. 348-360 2015 doi:10.1017/thg.2015.29

A. Anastasi (1958). Heredity, environment, and the question 'How?' Psychological Review, 65, 197-208. pdf

A. Anastasi (1976). Common fallacies about heredity, environment, and human behavior. In W. A. Mehrens: Readings in measurement and evaluation in education and psychology. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. pdf of report

Katrina L. Grasby a.o. (2017). Little Evidence That Socioeconomic Status Modifies Heritability of Literacy and Numeracy in Australia. Child Development sci-hub.cc

Grasby, Katrina L., Little, Callie W., Byrne, Brian, Coventry, William L., Olson, Richard K., Larsen, Sally, & Samuelsson, Stefan (2019). Estimating classroom-level influences on literacy and numeracy: A twin study. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000418abstract

Benjamin S. Bloom (1964). Stability and change in human characteristics. New York: Wiley. lccc 64-17133 abstract

Muenks, K., Miele, D. B., Rowe, M. L., Ramani, G. B., & Stapleton, L. M. (2015). Parental beliefs about the fixedness of ability. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 41, 78-89. researchgate

"Specifically, the more parents believed that abilities were fixed, the less frequently they reported engaging in math- and reading-related activities." My question: are there third variables explaining the relation? Such as SES.

Genes, behavior, and behavior genetics Evan Charney WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1405

temp. open access

Large Cross-National Differences in Gene × Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Intelligence Elliot M. Tucker-Drob,- Timothy C. Bates (2015). [geen pdf?] Psychological Science abstract & references

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition Across Development and Context Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, Daniel A. Briley, and K. Paige Harden (2013). Current Directions in Psychological Science 22(5) 349-355 pdf

Jerome Kagan (2003). Biology, context, and developmental inquiry. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 1-23. abstract

Maciej Trzaskowski, Nicholas G. Shakeshaft & Robert Plomin (2014). Intelligence indexes generalist genes for cognitive abilities. Intelligence, 41, 560-565. free access

Stuart J. Ritchie and Timothy C. Bates & Robert Plomin (2014). Does Learning to Read Improve Intelligence? A Longitudinal Multivariate Analysis in Identical Twins From Age 7 to 16. Child Development open access

Ben Wilbrink (1972). html

Added on that webpage: literature on heritability of differences in achievement and intelligence

Theoretical Concepts in the Genetics of Personality Development Elliot M. Tucker-Drob & Daniel A. Briley (2018?). To appear in: Dan P. McAdams, Rebecca L. Shiner, and Jennifer L. Tackett (Eds.) Handbook of Personality Development pdf concept

Richard E. Nisbett, Joshua Aronson, Clancy Blair, William Dickens, James Flynn, Diane F. Halpern, Eric Turkheimer (2012). Intelligence. New Findings and Theoretical Developments. American Psychologist, 67, 130-159 open access

Richard E. Nisbett (2013). Schooling makes you smarter. What teachers need to know about IQ. American Educator Spring, 10-39. pdf

Nicholas G. Shakeshaft , Maciej Trzaskowski, Andrew McMillan, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Claire M. A. Haworth, Philip S. Dale, Robert Plomin (2013). Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341 open access

David Perkins, Shari Tishman, Ron Ritchhart, Kiki Donis, and Al An- drade (2000). Intelligence in the Wild. A Dispositional View of Intellectual Traits Educational Psychology Review, 12, 269-293. concept

Stuart Ritchie Elliot Tucker-Drob (2018). How much does education improve intelligence? A meta-analysis. Psychological Science abstract also a preprint

S. Selzam, E. Krapohl, S. von Stumm, P. F. O'Reilly, K. Rimfeld, Y. Kovas, P. S. Dale, J. J. Lee & R. Plomin (2017). Predicting educational achievement from DNA. Molecular Psychiatry, 22, 267-272 open access

Augustine Kong (2017). The nature of nurture: effects of parental genotypes. preprint

Eva Krapohla, Kaili Rimfelda, Nicholas G. Shakeshafta, Maciej Trzaskowskia, Andrew McMillana, Jean-Baptiste Pingaulta, Kathryn Asbury, Nicole Harlaard, Yulia Kovasa,e,f, Philip S. Daleg, and Robert Plomin (2017). The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. open access

Richard J. Haier (2017). The neuroscience of intelligence. Cambridge University Press. [UBL geleend, toch?] Ch 1.

Exercise genetics: seeking clarity from noise. Craig Pickering, John Kiely (2017). open access

Culture-gene coevolutionary psychology: cultural learning, language, and ethnic psychology. Cristina Moya and Joseph Henrich (2016). ScienceDirect Current Opinion in Psychology 2016, 8:112-118 open access

OPINION: 2017 Constance Holden Memorial Address: Liberal Creationism Toby Young open access

Behavior Research Methods The reliability paradox: Why robust cognitive tasks do not produce reliable individual differences. Craig Hedge Georgina PowellPetroc Sumner open access

Inga Schwabe, Luc Janss and Stéphanie M. van den Berg (2017). Can We Validate the Results of Twin Studies? A Census-Based Study on the Heritability of Educational Achievement. Front. Genet. open access

Draadje Tim van der Zee Twitter

James Flynn (2016). Does your Family Make You Smarter? Nature, Nurture, and Human Autonomy. info.

The first chapter 'Twins and autonomy' is some kind of summary. James Flynn will conclude the following (quote)

First, that whatever families do to upgrade the cognitive quality of the home persists long enough to influence their children's fate at the crucial age of 17. Second, that whatever society does to upgrade the cognitive environment of children has the same consequences (..). Third, that genes and luck notwithstanding, all of us, both in childhood and maturity, have the capacity to choose to significantly enhance our cognitive performance.

p. 9

Chapter 2 starts serious business. The important concept here seems to be the cognitive quality of the family environment. No, Flynn does not explain what it is, at least not on p. 12 (but see appendix p. 180). Neither does he point out that there is a strenuous relation between that concept and the family genes. Having said that, it seems impossible that the child's genes and the cognitive quality of the family environment are independent variables, not being correlated. This is one of the stumble blocks making it difficult to understand what exactly Flynn is trying to do in this first part of his new book.

Ch 2 p. 13, introduces a serious confusion of 'true' and 'measured' vocabulary. What exactly does Flynn mean where he writes 'students whose vocabulary puts them at +2 SD above average'? Is it 'true' vocabuary, or is it 'level of performace' (on a vocab test) as mentioned in the preceding sentence? Is it possible for a psychometrician to conclude from some top score on a vocab test that a particular student is 98th percentile in true vocabulary? In his tables Flynn strongly suggests they are dealing with observed scores. Yet it is impossible for a +2 SD score to correspond to a +2 SD 'true' vocabulary. Flynn is talking of true vocabularies and observed vocabularies (at +1 SD etcetera) at the same time.

Ch 2, p. 18, turns the reasoning around, without mentioning as much; '.. those who would get an SAT-R score of 544, if they came from from a home typical of of those who score at that level.

Appendix 1 p. 181 at the top: 'eliminating 30 percent from the bottom of a normal curve lifts the SD of the remainder by 0.4967 SD.' This is utterly confusing; the first 'SD' should be 'median' to make it reasonable. And again in the second alinea. Proof: how Flynn talks in the second half of this page. Back to. the top passage 1): I do not understand the reasoning here at all. Yet it is crucial to everything else that follows.

For the time being, I give up on the first part of Flynn's Does your family make you smarter. I do not understand what he is doing here, it is a big thought experiment. The second part of the book is very interesting, does not however touch on the title theme.

High heritability of IQ (tested in adult age), what is its significance, if any? For starters, the question itself is a reification of the abstraction. A test is an instrument, not a societal goal. These issues confused my reading of Flynn's 'Does your family make you smarter'? https://twitter.com/benwilbrink/status/947094569509892096 Richard Nisbett does not confuse me. In his 2009 'Intelligence and how to get it' ‪http://books.wwnorton.com/books/Intelligence-and-How-to-Get-It/- …‬ p. 38: “The degree of heritability of IQ places constraint on the degree of modifiability that is possible. All geneticists accept this principle, but hereditarians often acknowledge the principle and then go on to write as if heritability does in fact place limits on modifiability.” An example in the last category: Asbury & Plomin 2014 'G is for genes'

Flynn does not touch on expertise (Anders Ericsson) and how that relates to common smartness. Yet it seems to be the case that the phenomena of expertness show the concept of rather fixed intelligence to be at fault, in somewhat the same way the existence of 'Flynn-effects' does.

James Flynn (2013). Intelligence and human progress: The story of what was hidden in our genes. Elsevier. [eBook in KB]

The Impact of Variation in Twin Relatedness on Estimates of Heritability and Environmental Influences. researchgate [no pdf]

William Dickens & James Flynn (2001). Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved. July 2001Psychological Review 108(3):549-549 10.1037/0033-295x.108.2.346 pdf [This article has been corrected. See Psychol Rev 2001 Jul;108(3):549.]

William Dickens (2005). Genetic differences and school readiness. February 2005The Future of Children 15(1):55-69. researchgate (complete issue)

Sandra Scarr (1988). How genotypes and environments combine: development and individual differences. In Niall Bolger, Avshalom Caspi, Geraldine Downey & Martha Moorehause (Eds.): Persons in context. Developmental processes. Cambridge University Press. isbn 052135577x (217-244). summary

M. Stoolmiller (1999). Implications of the restricted range of family environments for estimates of heritability and nonshared environment in behavior-genetic adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 392-409. [full-text requested] [pdf via https://sci-hub.la/] [merkwaardig dat ik dit artikel in 1999. niet lijk te hebben opgemerkt] abstract

Callie H. Burt. Heritability studies: Methodological flaws, Invalidated dogmas, and changing paradigms. Advances in Medical Sociology: Health, Genetics, & Society 16, forthcoming 2015. researchgate

Robert Plomin, Sophie von Stumm (2018). The new genetics of intelligence. Nature Reviews Genetics, 19, 148-159 doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.104 open

Genomic analysis of family data reveals additional genetic effects on intelligence and personality. William David- Hill (2017?). pdf preprint

Michael le Page (2017). DNA variants that are bad for health may also make you stupid. DAILY NEWS 20 June 2017. article

Genomic analysis of family data reveals additional genetic effects on intelligence and personality. W. David Hill, Ruben C. Arslan and others (2018). Molecular Psychiatry- (2018) doi:10.1038/s41380-017-0005-1 {paywalled, pdf not yet acquired] abstract

PUBLIC RELEASE: 9-JAN-2018 Identical twins can share more than identical genes BAYLOR COLLEGE OF MEDICINE article


Dean Keith Simonton (2003). Francis Galton's Hereditary Genius. Its place in the history and psychology of science. pp 3-19 in R. J. Sternberg (Ed.). The anatomy of impact. What has made the great works of psychology great. APA PSYCHO D1.1.-37- (nog niet geleend) info

Dean Keith Simonton (2014). Historiometric Studies of Genius 87-106 in Dean Keith Simonton (Ed.) (2014). The Wiley Handbook of Genius Wiley. PSYCHO P4.2.2.-114 info

Catharine Cox (1926). The early mental traits of three hundred geniuses. Volume II of Genetic Studies of Genius. Stanford University Press. archive.org

Having skimmed the conclusions: Cox assumes intelligence to be innate. Her last sentence:

Han L. J. Van Der Maas, "kees-jan Kan, Maarten Marsman and Claire E. Stevenson (2017). Network Models for Cognitive Development and Intelligence. J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 16; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020016 open access

The paradox of intelligence: Heritability and malleability coexist in hidden gene-environment interplay.- Pages 26-47.- Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D. (2018). - http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000131- Psychological Bulletin paywalled see also: https://neurosciencenews.com/inherited-iq-kids-8356/

Augustine Kong and many, many others (2018). The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes. Science, 359, 424-428 open access

Barbara Beatty (1998). From Laws of Learning to a Science of Values Efficiency and Morality in Thorndike's Educational Psychology. October 1998 American Psychologist Vol. 53, No. 10, I145-1152 pdf [Edward L. Thorndike]

Richard E. Nisbett (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York, NY: Norton. isbn 9780393065053 [UBL PSYCHO C6.-148- ] info

Jelte M. Wicherts, Conor V. Dolan, Jerry S. Carlson, Han L. J. van der Maas (2009). Raven's test performance of sub-Saharan Africans: Average performance, psychometric properties, and the Flynn Effect. Learning and Individual Differences pdf

Jop van Kampen (12-2-2018). Wetenschappers twisten over de vraag: hoe aangeboren is IQ? Het Parool .

Robert J. Sternberg & Elena Grigorenko (Eds.) (1997). Intelligence, heredity, and environment. Cambridge University Press. contents and access

Robert Plomin & Gerald E. McClearn (Eds.) (1993). Nature, nurture & psychology. Washington, DC. American Psychological Association. isbn 1557982023 info


Frank Miele (2002). Intelligence, race, and genetics. Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen. Westview Press. isbn 081334008X Mag dus tzt ook naar Boekenzolder --> reviewed

Careful study, lots of people involved more or less actively. Author has an axe to grind: heritability estimates in the mainstream literature are wy too high. Criticised by Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr. abstract.

Handbook of Behavior Genetics pp 81-99 | Twin Studies of General Mental Ability. Authors Nancy L. SegalEmail authorWendy Johnsonpreview

"Twin research on behavioral and medical traits, in general, and on intelligence, in particular, has advanced at an impressive rate."

Race, Genetics, and Scientific Integrity Jerry Hirsch From: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved Volume 2, Number 3, Winter 1991 pp. 331-334 | 10.1353/hpu.2010.0046 abstract

Race, genes, and disparity. This blog: Race, genes, & intelligence, references. dated 2011. wordpress

Stephen Ceci & Wendy M. Williams (2009). Darwin 200: Should scientists study race and IQ? YES: The scientific truth must be pursued Nature open

The Intellectual War on Science. It's wreaking havoc in universities and jeopardizing the progress of research. By Steven Pinker Feb 13, 2018 The Chronicle of Higher Education site

Roxanne Connellya & Vernon Gayleb (2018). An investigation of Social Class Inequalities in General Cognitive Ability in Two British Birth Cohorts. SocArXiv Papers. open

Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence. Suzanne Sniekers, Sven Stringer[…]Danielle Posthuma. Nature Genetics volume 49, pages 1107-1112 (2017) doi:10.1038/ng.3869 abstract

Aron K. Barbey (2018). Network Neuroscience Theory of Human Intelligence Trends in Cognitive Sciences, open access

Jonathan Wai Ph.D. How the “Cafeteria of Experience” Impacts Our Development. Without sufficient opportunity attaining expertise is highly unlikely. Posted Feb 21, 2018 blog

LISTEN: Why we need to talk about the role of genetics in education - Dr Kathryn Asbury talks to Tes Podagogy. Tes Editorial Staff. 21st February 2018 pocast & text

I am worried. Deeply.

Hans J. Eysenck (Ed.) (1973). The measurement of intelligence. Readings selected and comments written by H. J. Eysenck. Lancaster: MTP Medical and Technical Publishing Co. Ltd. SBN 852000596

Robert Cancro (Ed.) (1971). Intelligence: genetic and environmental influences. Grune & Stratton. lccc 79-153576. reviewed

Geeft goed beeld van het denken over intelligentie een halve eeuw geleden.

Alfred Binet & Théodore Simon (1916/1973 reprint). The development of intelligence in children. (The Binet-Simon Scale). Translated by Elizabeth S. Kite. Reprint: New York Arno Press. isbn 0405051350 online

Stephen Jay Gould (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton. isbn 0393300560 preface to 2nd edition 1996

A terrible book (and terribly popular on top of that), or is it? Needs to be studied alongside serious criticisms by psychologists. Gould might be right, I am beginning to suspect these days ;-)

L. E. W. van Albada (1956). Intelligentie en lichamelijke gesteldheid. Resultaten van een sociaal-geneeskundig onderzoek bij 10000 schoolkinderen in de provincie Groningen. Proefschrift RU Groningen. met stellingen.

Philip Yam (Ed.) (1998). Exploring intelligence. A search in the human, animal, machine and extraterrestrial domains. Scientific American, vol 9, issue #4.

Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, Daniel A. Briley, Laura E. Engelhardt, Frank D. Mann, and K. Paige Harden (2016). Genetically-Mediated Associations between Measures of Childhood Character and Academic Achievement J Pers Soc Psychol. 2016 Nov; 111(5): 790-815 author manuscript

Rimfeld, K., Kovas, Y., Dale, P. S., & Plomin, R. (2016). True grit and genetics: Predicting academic achievement from personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(5), 780-789. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000089 open

Irving I. Gottesman & James Shields (1972). Schizophrenia and genetics. A twin study vantage point.Academic Press. lccc 727684 [niet in UBL]

Hans J. Eysenck (1990). Rebel with a cause. The autobiography. W. H. Allen. isbn 1852271620

Richard M. Lerner, Daniel F. Perkins & Lauren P. Jacobson (1993). Timing, process, and the diversity of developmental trajectories in human life: A developmental contextual perspective. Ch. 3 in Gerald Turkewitz & Darlynne A. Devenny (Eds.) (1993). Developmental time and timing (41-60). LEA. 0805808515 abstract. Also book preview

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for height and body mass index in ~700,000 individuals of European ancestry. Loic Yengo, Julia Sidorenko, Kathryn E Kemper, Zhili Zheng, Andrew R Wood, Michael N Weedon, Timothy M Frayling, Joel Hirschhorn, Jian Yang, Peter M Visscher, GIANT Consortium doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/274654abstract & pdf download.

Simon Kemp (1990). Medieval psychology. Greenwood Press. isbn 0313267340

Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (2018). The nature of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. info Whole book available online: https://archive.org/details/TheNatureOfHumanIntelligenceSternbergRobertJ/page/n1/mode/2up


  1. Intelligence as Potentiality and Actuality pp 1-14 By Phillip L. Ackerman https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.002 This is a key publication connecting IQ and expertise of adults and adolescents. Yes! It is pretty ridiculous to test adults on IQ without considering their expertise in law, music, carpentry, whatever. Ackerman does not discuss its implications for claims of high heritabilities of IQ for adult, however. .
    Ever since Binet and Simon published the rst modern scales to measure child intelligence, the fundamental purpose of intelligence assessment has been for prediction ( .. ) Once one understands this fundamental issue in the study of intelligence, several key concepts must be considered, as follows:
    • First, intelligence is, more or less, contextually (and culturally) bounded. ( .. )
    • Second, intelligence is a 'relative' or normative construct. ( .. )
    • Third, intelligence is dynamic. ( .. )
    • Fourth ( .. ) one can make a critical distinction between intellience potentiality and intelligence actuality.
    For a conceptual discussion of investment and intellectual development, see Cattell (1971)
    understanding of adult intelligence is woefully incomplete. Assessments that give credit to adults for the wide variety of knowledge and skills that they possess have yet to be developed. A high proportion of an adult's day-to-day intellectual life is simply unaccounted for by modern IQ assessments.
  2. Hereditary Ability: g Is Driven by Experience-Producing Drives pp 15-29 By Thomas J. Bouchard https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.003. Criticisms of Gould's Mismeasure of man. My problem with this chapter: it sums up some literature (useful, of course), it is weak in explaining issues and relations. The key message of Bouchard seems to be: "“the genome impresses itself on the psyche largely by influencing the character, selection, and impact of experience during development” (Bouchard et al., 1990a. p. 228)." Dynamic interaction. I will have to return to the chapter text on that interaction theme.
    I have always thought it was amazing that while psychologists and others heavily emphasize the role of family environment, thus the emphasis on socioeconomic status (SES), in the shaping of intelligence in children, they conducted almost no studies of unrelated individuals reared together (URT). The URT design is the most powerful one to assess this source of in uence. As Figure 2.1 shows, this design suggests a value near zero in adulthood for shared environment (see the asterisks in Figure 2.1), a value below that suggested by twin designs, namely, about 10%. My view is that psychologists have been plagued by confirmation bias and highly resistant to strong inference and refutation of their theories (Bouchard, 2009). The influence of genes on IQ and SES was laid out for us a great many years ago by a brilliant and highly underappreciated psychologist, namely Barbara Burks (Burks, 1938; King, Montanez-Raminez, & Wertheimer, 1996). [Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2009). Strong inference: A strategy for advancing psychological science. In K. McCartney & R. Weinberg (Eds.), Experience and development: A festschrift in honor of Sandra Wood Scarr (pp. 39-59). London: Taylor and Francis. researchgate.net. Burks, B. S. (1938). On the relative contributions of nature and nurture to average group differences in intelligence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 24, 276-282. open. King, D. B., Montanez-Raminez, L. M., & Wertheimer, M. (1996). Barbara Stoddard Burks: Pioneer behavioral geneticist and humanitarian. In G. A. Kimble, C. A. Boneay, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology; Volume II (pp. 213-225). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. {eBook in Dutch Royal Library}]
    Galton, in his book Hereditary Genius (1869/1914), formulated the idea that individuals differ from one another in mental ability and noted that the range of differences was quite wide, had consequences for everyday life, and, like all the features of the organic world, was influenced by inheritance or what today we call genetics.
    (note 1) The book was originally published in 1869. In the 1892 edition Galton admit- ted that the title was misleading, that it had little to do with genius, and that it should have been titled Hereditary Ability (Galton, 1892/1962, p. 26). As Darwin noted in the quote that follows, the idea of “intellect,” a xed characteristic or a trait in which individuals did not di er, has a very long history.
  3. Culture, Sex, and Intelligence pp 30-48 Stephen J. Ceci, Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, Wendy M. Williams https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.004.
    In this chapter we focus on findings from our research on sex differences in academic achievement and what they say about the role of culture in shaping mathematical and spatial cognition. Our research focuses on the policy and educational implications of spatial and mathematical ability that are correlated with psychometric data (e.g., SAT, GRE, NAEP) and raises questions about the nature and development of these differences and what role policy has in ameliorating them.
  4. The Nature of the General Factor of Intelligence pp 49-63 Andrew R. A. Conway, Kristof Kovacs https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.005
    In the current chapter, we present an overview of our program of research on the relationship between working memory, executive attention, and intelligence. This line of work has culminated in a new theory of the positive manifold of intelligence and a corresponding new model of the general factor, g. We refer to this new framework as process overlap theory (POT) (Kovacs & Conway, 2016b).
  5. Intelligence in Edinburgh, Scotland: Bringing Intelligence to Life pp 64-84 Ian J. Deary, Stuart J. Ritchie https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.006 #key
    • Bringing the Scottish Mental Surveys' Intelligence Data to Life
    • Intelligence and the Length of Life
    • The Lifetime Stability of Intelligence Differences
    • What Affects Lifetime Changes in Intelligence Differences?
    • The Heritability of Intelligence
    • Structural Brain Imaging Correlates of Intelligence
    • Sex Differences, Getting on in Life, and Estimating Premorbid Intelligence
    • More Intelligence Research with Good Epidemiological Samples - Educational and Social Policy Matters in Intelligence - Questions for Future Research
  6. Intelligence as Domain-Specific Superior Reproducible Performance pp 85-100 K. Anders Ericsson sci-hub.tw/10.1017/9781316817049.007
    I will then describe the work on the expert-performance approach and new insights into the structure of acquired expert performance and, in par- ticular, I will review how the correlation between basic cognitive abilities, such as IQ, and performance differs for beginners' and skilled individuals' performance in different domains.
  7. Intelligence, Society, and Human Autonomy pp 101-115 James R. Flynn https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.008
    As recently as 10 years ago, a steel chain of ideas dominated the minds of those who studied and measured intelligence. Much of my own contribu- tion has been to break its links and therefore I must describe them in some detail. Arthur Jensen was its best advocate. The enemies of truth tried to silence Jensen. Science progresses not by labeling some ideas as too wicked to be true, but by debating their truth.

    The Steel Chain of Ideas

    Jensen believed that intelligence is something that transcends culture, social history, and even species; a name for certain traits of a properly developed brain that allow us to solve the wide variety of cognitive prob- lems presented in everyday life. He based his beliefs on four pillars: factor analysis, kinship studies, the dominance of g (the general intelligence fac- tor), and the method of correlated vectors.

  8. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences pp 116-129 Howard Gardner, Mindy Kornhaber, Jie-Qi Chen https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.009
  9. g Theory pp 130-151 Linda S. Gottfredson sci-hub.tw/10.1017/9781316817049.010 #key
    Where psychologists saw individual differences, sociologists saw social inequality. Where psychologists suspected genetic influences on cognitive competence, influential figures in sociology alleged an elite perpetuating itself under the guise of intellectual merit. Career-development psychologists asked how young people choose among different occupations; status-attainment researchers asked what bars the less privileged from entering the most desirable ones. Both theories of occupational attainment pointed to factors the other ignored. One classified occupations horizontally, by field of work; the other ordered them vertically, by prestige. One looked at the nature of work performed and interests rewarded in different occupations; the other only at the socioeconomic benefits flowing to workers in them. Both approaches had venerable histories and vast bodies of evidence, yet contradicted the other's most fundamental assumptions and conclusions.
  10. Puzzled Intelligence pp 152-166 By Elena L. Grigorenko https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.011 sci-hub.tw.10.1017/9781316817049.011
    This chapter attempts to juxtapose the field of intelligence with the bourgeoning field of epigenetics
  11. A View from the Brain pp 167-182 Richard J. Haier https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.012
  12. Is Critical Thinking a Better Model of Intelligence? pp 183-196 Diane F. Halpern, Heather A. Butler https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.013
  13. Many Pathways, One Destination pp 197-214 Alan S. Kaufman https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.014
  14. My Quest to Understand Human Intelligence pp 215-229 Scott Barry Kaufman https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.015
  15. Individual Differences at the Top pp 230-255 By David Lubinski https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.016
  16. The Intelligence of Nations pp 256-269 Richard Lynn https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.017
  17. Intelligences about Things and Intelligences about People pp 270-286 John D. Mayer https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.018
  18. Mechanisms of Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence and Their Common Dependence on Executive Attention pp 287-307 Zach Shipstead, Randall W. Engle https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.019
  19. Successful Intelligence in Theory, Research, and Practice pp 308-322 Robert J. Sternberg https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.020 [Sternberg on Sternberg, superfluous]

Arthur R. Jensen (1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Praeger. pdf

Horatio H. Newman, Frank N. Freeman & Karl J. Holzinger (1937/1968 4e druk). Twins: a study of heredity and environment. University of Chicago Press. LC Card 37-11639 archive.org

#reference #twins #heritability #interaction #nature #nurture

Stephen J. Ceci & Helene A. Hembrooke (1994). A bioecological model of intellectual development. Ch 9 in Phyllis Moen, Glen H. Elder Jr., & Kurt Lüscher (Eds) (1995). Examining lives in context. Perspectives on the ecology of human development. (303-345) American Psychological Association. isbn 1557982937

Ph. M. van der Heijden (1953). Begaafdheid en beroep. Groningen: Wolters.

Edwin G. Boring (1929/1957). A history of experimental psychology. Appleton-Century Crofts. isbn 0390109886,

Arthur R. Jensen (1973). Educability & group differences. Harper & Row. isbn 0060121947 pdf

Arthur R. Jensen (1972). Genetics & Education. Methuen. isbn 0416602703


W. D. Hill, R. E. Marioni, O. Maghzian, S. J. Ritchie, S. P. Hagenaars, A. M. McIntosh, C. R. Gale, G. Davies & I. J. Deary (2018). A combined analysis of genetically correlated traits identifies 187 loci and a role for neurogenesis and myelination in intelligence. Molecular Psychiatry doi:10.1038/s41380-017-0001-5 open

Susan Goldberg,- Editor in Chief- (2018). For Decades, Our Coverage Was Racist. To Rise Above Our Past, We Must Acknowledge It. National Geographic article

The Nature of Nurture: Using a Virtual-Parent Design to Test Parenting Effects on Children's Educational Attainment in Genotyped Families. Timothy C. Bates, Brion S. Maher, Sarah E. Medland, Kerrie McAloney (2018). https://doi.org/10.1017/thg.2018.11Published online: 13 March 2018 abstract https://twitter.com/timothycbates/status/973837498597113856

Warne, R. T., Astle, M. C., & Hill, J. C. (2018). What do undergraduates learn about human intelligence? An analysis of introductory psychology textbooks.- Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(1), 32-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000038 open

J. M. Tanner (1962). Growth at adolescence. With a general consideration of the effects of hereditary and environmental factors upon growth and maturation from birth to maturity. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications info

Robert Plomin, Heather M. Chipuer & John C. Loehlin: Behavioral genetics and personality, pp 225-243 in Lawrence A. Pervin (Ed.) (1990 1st). Handbook of personality theory and research. The Guildford Press. isbn 0898624304 introduction, 3rd edition

Michael Schiff and Richard Lewontin (1986). Education and class. The irrelevance of IQ. Genetic studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. isbn 0198575998

Martha J. Farah (2009?). Mind, Brain, and Education in Socioeconomic Context chapter proof

Zena Stein, Mervyn Susser, Gerhart Saenger & Francis Marolla (1975). Famine and human development. The Dutch hunger winter of 1944-1945. Oxford University Press. isbn 0192690035 reviewed

William Stern (1920). Die Intelligenz der Kinder und Jugendlichen und die Methoden ihrer Untersuchung. Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth archive.org

J. D. Kruschwitz, L. Waller, L. S. Daedelow, H. Walter, I. M. Veer (2018). General, crystallized and fluid intelligence are not associated with functional global network efficiency: A replication study with the human connectome project 1200 data set. NeuroImage, 171, 323-331 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.01.018 abstract

Steven Pinker (2014). 2014 : What scientific idea is ready for retirement? Behavior = Genes + Environment blog

Steven Pinker (Jan. 7, 2009). My Genome, My Self. The New York Times Magazine blog

Steven Pinker (2016). On New Advances in Behavioral Genetics blog

Steven Pinker (2002). The blank slate. The modern denial of human nature. Allen Lane. isbn 0713992565 info. See also wiki

Is that true (what the title suggests)? I doubt it, therefore I'll have to study the book. Alfred Binet and Edward Thorndike are glaringly absent in the book. Francis Galton and James Flynn only mentioned in passing. The taboo Pinker is attacking is one of the later second half of the twentieth century, the dominant opinion in the first half (e.g. Edward Thorndike) being just the reverse.

Robert K. Sternberg & Richard K. Wagner (eds) (1994). Mind in context. Interactionist perspectives on human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. info

John C. Loehlin and Robert C. Nichols (1976). Heredity, environment, and personality. A study of 850 sets of twins. info

Sandra Scarr & Louise Carter-Saltzman: Genetics and intelligence pp 792--896 in Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (1982). Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. isbn 0521296870 Uitstekend overzicht, ook van tweelingoderzoeken.

key publication Robert B. Johnson (1989). The Burt affair. Routledge. isbn 041501039X

Sandra Scarr (1996). How people make their own environments: Implications for parents and policy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2, 204-228. abstract

Key publication on environmental dynamics, a rather extreme position though.

Sandra Scarr & Kathleen McCartney (1983). How People Make Their Own Environments: A Theory of Genotype → Environment Effects. Child Development, 54, 424-435. read online free

Sohan Modgil & Celia Modgil (Eds.) (1987). Arthur Jensen; consensus and controversy. Lewes, East Sussex: Falmer. isbn 185000093X

L. L. Cavalli-Sforza & W. F. Bodmer (1971). The genetics of human populations. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. isbn 0716706814

R. C. Lewontin (1974). The genetic basis of evolutionary change. Columbia University Press. Ch 1 scan & Ch 2 scan & archive.org borrow. See also R. C. Lewontin (1991). Twenty-Five YearsAgo in GENETICS: Electrophoresis in the Development of Evolutionary Genetics: Milestone or Millstone? pdf

Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature is a 1984 book by the evolutionary geneticist Richard Lewontin, the neurobiologist Steven Rose, and the psychologist Leon Kamin, in which the authors criticize sociobiology and genetic determinism and advocate a socialist society.” anna's archive.

Stephen M. Stigler (1989). Francis Galton's Account of the Invention of Correlation. Statistical Science, 4 #2, 73-79. open access

Correlation is a concept that is eminently useful yet entails loads of misunderstandings, especially so in issues of heritability. Therefore it might be important to be clear about the roots of the concept.

Emily Smith-Woolley, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, Saskia Selzam, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Sophie von Stumm, Kathryn Asbury, Philip S. Dale, Toby Young, Rebecca Allen, Yulia Kovas & Robert Plomin (2018). Differences in exam performance between pupils attending selective and non-selective schools mirror the genetic differences between them. npj|Science of Learning nature.com Nature Partner Journals open access

Steven Pinker on New Advances in Behavioral Genetics (2016). The findings of behavioral genetics have turned out to be substantial and robust, and new studies are linking genes with behavioral traits like IQ blog

A. Beaujean (2015). John Carroll's Views on Intelligence: Bi-Factor vs. Higher-Order Models. Journal of Intelligence. open

Luca Rinaldi, Annette Karmiloff-Smith (2015). Intelligence as a Developing Function: A Neuroconstructivist Approach. Journal of Intelligence , Volume 5; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020018 open

Enhancing Intelligence: From the Group to the Individual. Roberto Colom, Francisco Román (2018). Journal of Intelligence , Volume 6; doi:10.3390/jintelligence6010011 open

VU (27-3-2018). Afstelling van genen verschilt tussen hoger- en lager opgeleide Nederlanders. persbericht

Nou ja, dat is wel erg kort door de bocht. De resultaten zijn gepubliceerd in- NPJ Science of Learning. Van Dongen and others 2018.

Jenny van Dongen en vele anderen (2018). DNA methylation signatures of educational attainment. nature.com npj science of learning open and behind the paper

Christopher F. Chabris, Benjamin M. Hebert, Daniel J. Benjamin, Jonathan P. Beauchamp, David Cesarini, Matthijs J.H.M. van der Loos, Magnus Johannesson, Patrik K.E. Magnusson, Paul Lichtenstein, Craig S. Atwood, Jeremy Freese, Taissa S. Hauser, Robert M. Hauser, Nicholas A. Christakis and David Laibson (2012). Most Reported Genetic Associations with General Intelligence Are Probably False Positives. Psychol Sci. 2012 Nov 1; 23(11): 1314-1323. open

Carl Zimmer, May 22, 2017. In 'Enormous Success,' Scientists Tie 52 Genes to Human Intelligence. The New York Times online

Why do children read more? The influence of reading ability on voluntary reading practices Elsje van Bergen Margaret J. Snowling Eveline L. de Zeeuw Catharina E.M. van Beijsterveldt Conor V. Dolan Dorret I. Boomsmaopen

Suzanne C. Swagerman, Elsje van Bergen, Conor Dolan, Eco J. C. de Geus, Marinka M. G. Koenis, Hilleke E. Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I. Boomsma (2017). Genetic transmission of reading ability. Brain and Language, 172, September, 3-8 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2015.07.008 abstract

Paige Harden April 13, 2018 Genetic Test Scores Predicting Intelligence Are Not the New Eugenics blog

Hill, W. D. et al. A combined analysis of genetically correlated traits identifies 187 loci and a role for neurogenesis and myelination in intelligence. Molecular Psychiatry 1 (2018)

Genomic SEM Provides Insights into the Multivariate Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits. Andrew D Grotzinger, Mijke Rhemtulla, Ronald de Vlaming, Stuart J. Ritchie, Travis T. Mallard, W. David Hill, Hill F. Ip, Andrew M. McIntosh, Ian J. Deary, Philipp D. Koellinger, K. Paige Harden, Michel G. Nivard, Elliot M. Tucker-Drob (2018). doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/305029 This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed open

Toby Young (April 23, 2018). The left is heading for a reckoning with the new genetics. The Spectator blog

Kevin Mitchell (May 2, 2018). Why genetic IQ differences between 'races' are unlikely. the Guardian article

Pieter J. van Strien (2003). De opvoedbaarheid van de intelligentie. Een oud strijdpunt tussen pedagogen en psychologen. Pedagogiek, 23122-136. pdf

Key publication. Abstract in English, article in Dutch.

Fatos Selita & Yulia Kovas (2018). Genes and Gini: What inequality means for heritability. Journal of Biosocial Science open

M. Bartels, J. H. Rietveld, G. C. M. van Baal et al. (2002). Heritability of educational achievement in 12-year-olds and the overlap with cognitive ability. , 544-553. open

Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function,. Gail Davies, Max Lam, […] Ian J. Deary Nature Communications volume , Article number: 2098 (2018) open

Gry Oftedal (2005). Heritability and genetic causation. Philosophy of Science, 72, 699-709. pdf

Key publication.

R. C. Lewontin (1974). The Analysis of Variance and the Analysis of Causes. Am J Hum Genet 26, 400-411.

Key publication. See also Oftedal_2005. Harden 2021 p. 274 note 21: R. C. Lewontin (2006). The analysis of variance and the analysis of causes. International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 35, Issue 3, June 2006, Pages 520-52, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl062 open access [The same title as the 1974 article, do not get confused — Lewontin here does not even mention his 1974 article.]

Unraveling the Genetic and Environmental Relationship Between Well-Being and Depressive Symptoms Throughout the Lifespan. Bart M. L. Baselmans, Yayouk E. Willems, C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt, Lannie Ligthart, Gonneke Willemsen, Conor V. Dolan, Dorret I. Boomsma and Meike Bartels (2018). Frontiers in Psychiatry doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00261 open

Robert Plomin & C. S. Bergeman (1991). The nature of nurture: Genetic influence on 'environmental' measures. Behavioral and brain sciences, 14, 373-427. preview

John J. McArdle , Carol A. Prescott , Fumiaki Hamagami & John L. Horn (1998). A contemporary method for developmental‐genetic analyses of age changes in intellectual abilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 14 69-114 https://doi.org/10.1080/87565649809540701 [nog niet gezien] paywalled, references

Anne Anastasi (1971). More on heritability: Addendum to the Hebb and Jensen interchange. American psychologist, 26, 1036-7. pdf [Jensen replied in 1972, below]

Arthur Jensen (1972). Interpretation of heritability. American Psychologist 973-5. pdf [with rejoinder by Anne Anastasi]

Genetic analysis of social-class mobility in five longitudinal studies. Daniel W. Belsky, Benjamin W. Domingue, Robbee Wedow, Louise Arseneault, Jason D. Boardman, Avshalom Caspi, Dalton Conley, Jason M. Fletcher, Jeremy Freese, Pamela Herd, Terrie E. Moffitt, Richie Poulton, Kamil Sicinski, Jasmin Wertz, and Kathleen Mullan Harris (2018). PNAS open

Toby Youg (July 9, 2018). The left is heading for a reckoning with the new genetics. Spectator blog

W. David Hill, Sarah, E. Harris, Ian J. Deary (2018). What genome-wide association studies reveal about the association between intelligence and mental health. prepublication

Out today in @NatureGenet: our paper on RDR, a novel method for estimating heritability without environment bias (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41588-018-0178-9 …). I wrote an accessible blog post explaining the paper and its implications (https://geneticvariance.wordpress.com/2018/08/13/relatedness-disequilibrium-regression-explained/ …) #geneticstweet

Alexander Young (2018). Relatedness disequilibrium regression explained. blog

How scientists are trying to predict your future with your genes. But what are the limits? Genome-wide association studies, explained. By Brian Resnick @B_resnick brian@vox.com Aug 23, 2018, 9:10am EDT blog

Theodosius Dobzhansky (1973). Genetic diversity & human equality. Basic Books. isbn 0465026710

Richard J. Herrnstein & Charles Murray (1994). The Bell curve. Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: The Free Press. isbn 0029146739

#reference The authors prefer to use cognitive ability instead of intelligence.

The six points illustrate the mainstream position of especially American psychologists studying differences in intelligence. It is by no means the case, as H&M claim, that there is no technical dispute. The dispute was already going on at the turn of the 20th century, and many of the arguments are still valid today. Developments in recent years (after 1994) add new arguments: the Flynn effect, the network approach (Van der Maas and others), research on experts (Ericsson and others). Remark that nowhere do H&M refer to cognitive science: their treatment of intelligence is in terms of individual differences as measured by tests of cognitive ability in the (school) population. This individual differences frame is contingent on our (school) culture. In the field of education, contemporary folk conceptions of intelligence are derived from the psychological dogmatism of, e.g., Edward Thorndike: intelligence does exist, it is a stable characteristic of the individual, therefore it must be genetic in origin.

@ 1: Yes, there is a positive manifold of cognitive abilities.

@ 2. Yes. I’d rather not call tests ‘measurements of this general factor’, though. @ 3. Yes. And that is a serious problem because what is reflected in ordinary language is folk psychology. Scientific psychology surely should not be folk psychology clad as pseudoscientific psychology. @ 4. This simply is not true. Education will make a difference. Environments make for differences, therefore changes in the environment will effect IQ scores. @ 5. IQ tests not biased? Come on. The APA Standards warn for bias! @ 6: The main question: small genetic differences get amplified in environmental dynamics. Heritability coefficients should not include those dynamics.

See also Jay Joseph 2024: 'The Bell Curveat 30: A Closer Look at the Within-and Between-Group IQ Genetic Evidence' https://osf.io/preprints/psyarxiv/jz7ku.

Arthur I. Gates (1921). The Inheritance of Mental Traits. Psychological Bulletin 358-365 whole volume archive.org

Ben Williamson (Sept 2, 2018). Postgenomic science, big data, and biosocial education. on_education Journal for Research and Debate.open

Hamilton Cravens (1992). A scientific project locked in time. The Terman genetic studies of genius, 1920s-1950s. Scientific American, 47, 183-189 [hard copy, mag weg toch? Maar ik vind geen pdf, bewaren diff] 10.1037/0003-066X.47.2.183 abstract

David Burbridge (2001). Francis Galton on twins, heredity and social class. The British Journal for the History of Science, 34, 323-340. abstract

Robert Plomin and Frank M. Spinath (2004). Intelligence: Genetics, Genes, and Genomics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 112-129. pdf

Kate E. Lynch (2016). Heritability and causal reasoning. Biology & Philosophy, 32, 25-49. abstract appendix references

& pdf

L. J. Eaves, K. Last, N. G. Martin & J. L. Jinks (1977). A progressive approach to non-additivity and genotype-environmental covariance in the analysis of human differences. The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1977.tb00722.x abstract & citing literature #127

Kaili Rimfeld and Margherita Malanchini (7 September 2018). How much is academic achievement shaped by genes? BBC Future. blog

Yulia Kovas, Ivan Voronin, Andrey Kaydalov, ...and others (Plomin) (2013). Literacy and Numeracy Are More Heritable Than Intelligence in Primary School. Psychological Science open

Lots of assumptions. #twins

Robert Plomin, Heather M. Chipuer & John C. Loehlin: Behavior genetics and personality 225-243 in Lawrence A. Pervin (Ed.) (1990 1st). Handbook of personality theory and research. The Guildford Press. isbn 0898624304 introduction, 3rd edition

Kathryn Asbury (Sept 7, 2018). The genetic baseline: how a DNA score may soon determine how children are taught in school. Tes [not online]

Maxwell L Elliott and many others (2018). A Polygenic Score for Higher Educational Attainment is Associated with Larger Brains. Cerebral Cortex open

Allegrini, A.G., Selzam, S., Rimfeld, K., von Stumm, S., Pingault, J.B., Plomin, R. (2018 preprint). Genomic prediction of cognitive traits in childhood and adolescence preprint Sept 2018 & abstract of publication

Judith R. Harris (1998). The nurture assumption. Why children turn out the way they do. Parents matter less than you think and peers matter more. New York: Free Press. De titel suggereert wat anders, maar Harris kent erfelijkheid een heel belangrijke plaats toe. Ze volgt klakkeloos de tweelingenonderzoekers.

Eric M. Gander (2003). On our minds. How evolutionary psychology is reshaping the nature-vesus-nurture debate. Johns Hopkins UP. [UB Leiden Psycho C14.-25] info

Toby Young (Sept 23, 2018). Listen again to the @BBCRadio4 programme I presented on character. I explore whether good character can be taught, either by parents or schools, and interview the behavioural geneticist Robert Plomin, among others.tweet

Genetic determinism rides again. Nathaniel Comfort (25 Sept 2018) questions a psychologist's troubling claims about genes and behaviour. [review of Blueprint: How DNA Makes Us Who We Are- Robert Plomin- Allen Lane (2018)] article

There is much criticism on this article. I wonder what the specific arguments are. e.g. Timothy Bates tweet. Paige Harden's thread https://twitter.com/kph3k/status/1044990109299486720

Epigenetics and IQ: the mechanism behind environmentally-induced effects on cognitive performance. By Siobhán Dunphy - 24.09.2018 press and the article itself: Epigenetic variance in dopamine D2 receptor: a marker of IQ malleability? Jakob A. Kaminski and many, many others (2018). open access

Ben Williamson Behavioural geneticist Robert Plomin introducing a 'robot' & 'chip' that predict education achievement from millions of DNA differences - the data-centric genetics of education is really here ‪https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FptGxaxJyms- ‬tweet

John C. Loehlin and Robert C. Nichols (1976). Heredity, environment, and personality. A study of 850 sets of twins. University of Texas Press. isbn 0292730039 info

Daniel Benjamin, David Cesarini, Philipp Koellinger and Peter Visscher (nd). FAQs about "GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment" pdf

Pedro Sept 2018 blog

Saskia Selzam, Jonathan R. I. Coleman, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt & Robert Plomin (2018). A polygenic p factor for major psychiatric disorders. Translational Psychiatry, 8, Article number: 205 (2018) |open

Robert Plomin (2018). Blueprint. How DNA makes us who we are. allen Lane. isbn 9780241282076 info



Arthur S. Goldberger (1979). Heritability. Economica, 46, 327-347. preview

Robert Plomin (October 15, 2018). What Does Genetic Research Tell Us About Equal Opportunity and Meritocracy? article


Erik Turkheimer (1998). Heritability and Biological Explanation. Psychological Review, 105, 782-791. pdf

Amy Harmon (Oct. 18, 2018). 'Could Somebody Please Debunk This?': Writing About Science When Even the Scientists Are Nervous. New York Times blog

Héléna Alexandra Gaspar, View ORCID ProfileChristopher Hübel, View ORCID ProfileJonathan RI Coleman, Ken B Hanscombe , Gerome Breen (2018). Navigome: Navigating the Human Phenome. bioRxiv abstract & preprint download

Nicholas W. Papageorge, Kevin Thom (2017). Genes, Education, and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study. Upjohn Institute working paper 17-273. abstract & paper

Jag Bhalla (13 April, 2018). How do "genes" work? So-called experts have a hard time agreeing. blog

Dean Keith Simonton (Ed.) (2014). The Wiley handbook of genius. [UBL PSYCHO P4.2.2.-114] info

Cecile Janssens (Aug 2018). a tweetorial about this polygenic risk prediction paper Twitter thread

Jag Bhalla (13 April 2018). How do "genes" work? So-called experts have a hard time agreeing blog

July 27, 2018 /- by- K. Paige Harden- and- Daniel W. Belsky Predicting education from DNA? blog

Ewan Birney thread On the west coast I have had time to dig into this biorxive paper with the intriguing title "Genetic Consequences of Social Stratification in Great Britain" ‪https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/10/30/457515- …‬ Here are my initial thoughts on this Twitter thread

Variation in the Heritability of Educational Attainment: An International Meta-Analysis. Amelia R. Branigan Kenneth J. McCallum Jeremy Freese. Social Forces, Volume 92, Issue 1, 1 September 2013, Pages 109-140, https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sot076 abstract

Daniel A. Briley, Jonathan Livengood, Jaime Derringer, Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, R. Chris Fraley, & Brent W. Roberts (2018 accepted) Interpreting Behavior Genetic Models: Seven Developmental Processes to Understand. Manuscript accepted for publication in Behavior Genetics. http://publish.illinois.edu/dabriley/files/2018/11/Briley-2018-Interpreting-behavior-genetic-models.pdf

A dangerous idea. website

Mark- Adams,- William David- Hill,- David M.- Howard,- Katrina A. S.- Davis,- Ian J- Deary,- Matthew- Hotopf,- Andrew M- McIntosh (2018). Factors associated with sharing email information and mental health survey participation in two large population cohorts. bioRXiv doi:- https://doi.org/10.1101/471433 open


Kevin J. Mtchell (2018). Innate. How the wiring of our brains shapes who we are. Princeton UP. isbn 9780691184999 info The first chapter is free.

Malanchini, Margherita,Engelhardt, Laura E.,Grotzinger, Andrew D.,Harden, K. Paige,Tucker-Drob, Elliot M. (2018). “Same but different”: Associations between multiple aspects of self-regulation, cognition, and academic abilities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology abstract [paywalled]


If genomics is the answer, what's the question? A commentary on PsychENCODE . By Kevin Mitchell - December 20, 2018 blog

Maurice Schouten & Huib Looren de Jong (Eds.) (2007/2012). 'The matter of the mind. Philosophical essays on psychology, neuroscience, and reduction' Wiley-Blackwell

William H. Schneider (1990). Quality and quantity. The quest for biological regeneration in twentieth-century France. Cambridge History of Medicine.


Jay S. Kaufman & Crles Muntaner (27 March 2016). 'The association between intelligence and lifespan is mostly genetic' International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 45, Issue 2, 1 April 2016, Pages 576-577,https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyw019comment

Critial comments on an article by Arden et al.

Kevin M. Beaver, Joseph A.Schwartz, Mohammed Said Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed Nezar Kobeisy, Curtis S. Dunkel, Dimitri van der Linden (2014). A closer look at the role of parenting-related influences on verbal intelligence over the life course: Results from an adoption-based research design. Intelligence, 46, 179-187.abstract 10.1016/j.intell.2014.06.002

Not yet retrieved; not mentioned by Flynn 2016 (Family).

Harden KP, Turkheimer E, Loehlin JC (2007) Genotype by environment interaction in adolescents' cognitive aptitude. Behav Genet 37:273-283. doi:10.1007/s10519-006-9113-4 abstract

Loehlin JC, Harden KP, Turkheimer E (2009) The effect of assumptions about parental assortative mating and genotype-income correlation on estimates of genotype-environment interaction in the National Merit Twin Study. Behav Genet 39:165-169. doi:10.1007/s10519-008-9253-9

Robert M. Kirkpatrick, Matt McGue & William G. Iacono (2014). Replication of a Gene-Environment Interaction Via Multimodel Inference: Additive-Genetic Variance in Adolescents' General Cognitive Ability Increases with Family-of-Origin Socioeconomic Status. Behavior Genetics volume 45, pages200-214 abstract

Eric Turkheimer, Kathryn Paige Harden, and Richard E. Nisbett May 18, 2017. Charles Murray is once again peddling junk science about race and IQ. webpage

Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Femmie Juffer, Caroline W. Klein Poelhuis (2005). Adoption and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Adopted and Nonadopted Children's IQ and School Performance. Psychological Bulletin researchgate.net

Thinking positively: The genetics of high intelligence. Nicholas G. Shakeshaft Maciej Trzaskowski Andrew McMillan Eva Krapohl, Michael A. Simpson Avi Reichenberg, Martin Cederlöf Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Robert Plomin (2015). Intelligence 48, 123-132 open access

The abstract mentions genetic causes of intelligence. That is a big problem with Plomin, exchanging correlations for causes.

Tinca C. Polderman a.o. (2015). Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics advance online researchgate.net

'the causes of individual differences in human traits' Well, well, causes, not correlations?

The Problem of Non-Shared Environment in Behavioral Genetics. Oleg N. Tikhodeyev & Оlga V. Shcherbakova (2019). Behavior Genetics abstract

S. Alexandra Burt (2009). Rethinking Environmental Contributions to Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis of Shared Environmental Influences. Psychological Bulleting, 135, 608-637. PDF

Tikhodeyev, O. N., & Shcherbakova, О. V. (2019). The Problem of Non-Shared Environment in Behavioral Genetics. Behavior Genetics. doi:10.1007/s10519-019-09950-1 url to share this paper: sci-hub.tw/10.1007/s10519-019-09950-1

A. Cecile J.W. Janssens and many others (2011). Strengthening the reporting of genetic risk prediction studies (GRIPS): explanation and elaboration European Journal of Human Genetics open

AUS DEM SPIEGEL AUSGABE 36/2010 Jörg Blech (2010). Studies Show Nurture at Least as Important as Nature. How Hereditary Can Intelligence Be? open

Eric Turkheimer (2015). Genetic prediction. A Hastings Center Report. paywalled

Ewan Birney, on genetics. Feb 18, 2019 thread

Reimers, M. A., Craver, C., Dozmorov, M., Bacanu, S.-A., & Kendler, K. S. (2018). The Coherence Problem: Finding Meaning in GWAS Complexity. Behavior Genetics doi:10.1007/s10519-018-9935-x scihub

Rolf Degen (28 jan 2016). The groundbreaking lessons of behavior genetics are about the environment, not about genes. blog

A.C.Heath R.C.Kessler, M. C. neale, J. K. Hewitt, L. J. Eaves & K. S. Kendler (1993). Testing hypotheses about direction of causation using cross-sectional family data. Behavior Genetics, 23 pdf

Michael C. Neale & Lindon J. Eaves (1993). Estimating and controlling for the effects of volunteer bias with pairs of reltives. Behavior Genetics, 23. pdf

Tinca C. Polderman a.o. (2015). Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics advance online researchgate.net

'the causes of individual differences in human traits' Well, well, causes, not correlations?

Kevin Mitchell(May 29, 2018). Grandma's trauma - a critical appraisal of the evidence for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in humans blog

J. C. DeFries & D. W. Fulker (1986). Multivariate behavioral genetics and development: An overview. Behavior Genetics, 16, 1-10 preview

Suzanne C. Swagerman, Elsje van Bergen, Conor Dolan, Eco J.C. de Geus, Marinka M.G. Koenis, Hilleke E. Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I. Boomsma (2017). Genetic transmission of reading ability. Brain & Language, 172,3-8. pdf

Genetic Associations with Mathematics Tracking and Persistence in Secondary School. Kathryn Paige Harden, Benjamin W Domingue, Daniel W Belsky, Jason Boardman, Robert Crosnoe, Margherita Malanchini, Michel G Nivard, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Kathleen Mullan Harris (2019). preprint bioRxivdoi: https://doi.org/10.1101/598532open

Comparing within- and between-family polygenic score prediction. Saskia Selzam, Stuart J. Ritchie, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, Chandra A. Reynold, Paul F. O'Reilly, Robert Plomin1 (April 10, 2019). preprint

Twitter thread https://twitter.com/SaskiaSelzam/status/1116072320253272065

Eric Turkheimer (April 11, 2019). Within- and between-family prediction in TEDS. blog in Selzam a.o. 2019

thread https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1116325301292810240

Pierrick Wainschtein and very many others (2019). Recovery of trait heritability from whole genome sequence data bioRxiv preprint

Alexander Young (2019). Missing heritablity revisited. blog

Commentary on Wainschtein a.o. 2019.

Nick Barton, Joachim Hermisson & Magnus Nordborg (March 21, 2019). Population Genetics: Why structure matters blog [via Eric Turkheimer https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1118890989677109248]

Kevin Mitchell on January 7, 2019. Is Our Future Really Written in Our Genes? A recent book argues your DNA can predict your future from birth with 100 percent reliability. That assertion is not 100 percent reliable. Scientific American blog

(2002 3rd). Race and membership in American history: The eugenics movement. Facing History and Ourselves Foundation. ISBN 0-9615841-9-K book pdf

Edward L.Thorndike (1935). In defense of facts. Journal of Adult Education.

Alexander I. Young (Published: June 24, 2019). Solving the missing heritability problem https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008222open [uncorrcted proof]

key, for its list of references. Via Paige Harden (Twitter)

Eric Turkheimer (5 uly 2019). Cochran on Zimmer, ad correcting an old misimpression. blog

Heather L. Norton, Ellen E. Quillen, Abigail W. Bigham, Laurel N. Pearson and Holly Dunsworth (2019). Human races are not like dog breeds: refuting a racist analogy. Evolution: Education and Outreach open

Rosa Cheesman, Avina Hunjan, Jonathan Coleman, Yasmin Ahmadzadeh, Robert Plomin, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Gerome Breen (July 2019). Comparison of adopted and non-adopted individuals reveals gene-environment interplay for education in the UK Biobank. bioRXivpreprint

(Turkheimer: Smart study from ‪@thaliaeley‬, ‪@psychgenomics‬ ‪@RobertPlomin‬ and others, looking at reduced PGS performance in adoptees. Another reason to remember that PGS != inborn potential for educational attainment. https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1152295558750572544 )

Daniel A. Briley & Elliot Tucker-Drob (2013). Explaining the Increasing Heritability of Cognitive Ability Across Development. A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Twin and Adoption Studies. Psychological Science DOI: 10.1177/0956797613478618 read online free

Amelia R. Branigan, Kenneth J. McCallum, Jeremy Freese (2013). Variation in the Heritability of Educational Attainment: An International Meta-Analysis. Social Forces, Volume 92, Issue 1, September 2013, Pages 109-140, https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sot076 abstract

Eric Turkheimer (2019). The genetics of aphasia. blog

Or any complex entity.

Genetics and Learning: How the Genes Influence Educational Attainmentarticle

Biased from the very beginning? "Thus, knowledge derived from genetics and epigenetics, as well as from neuroscience, should be used to enhance education professionals' understanding of the biological origins of differences in mental capabilities" [my emphasis]

Early cortical surface plasticity relates to basic mathematical learning. Ulrike Kuhl, Angela D. Friederici (2019). NeuroImage abstract

de Zeeuw, Eveline L; Kees-Jan Kan; Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt; Mbarek, Hamdi; Jouke-Jan Hottenga; et al. NPJ Science of Learning; London Vol. 4, (2019): 1-8. DOI:10.1038/s41539-019-0052-2 The moderating role of SES on genetic differences in educational achievement in the Netherlands. ProQuest open access

OCTOBER 24, 2019- BY- EWANBIRNEY Race, genetics and pseudoscience: an explainer blog

Ritchie, S. J., Quinlan, E. B., Banaschewski, T., Bokde, A. L., Desrivieres, S., Flor, H., … Schumann, G. (2019, October 9). Neuroimaging and genetic correlates of cognitive ability and cognitive development in adolescence. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8pwd6 open

Comparing the Developmental Genetics of Cognition and Personality over the Lifespan Daniel A. Briley and Elliot M. Tucker-Drob (2017). Journal of Personality open access

Jasmin Wertz and many others (27 October 2019) Using DNA From Mothers and Children to Study Parental Investment in Children's Educational Attainment. Child Development https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13329 oppen access

Nichols, R. C. (1978).- 1: Policy Implications of the IQ Controversy. Review of Research in Education, 6(1), 3-46.- doi:10.3102/0091732x006001003- url to share this paper: sci-hub.tw/10.3102/0091732X006001003

Summarizes the thinking on IQ and its heritability around 1975.

Alexander O. Savi, Maarten Marsman, Han L. J. van der Maas, Gunter K. J. Maris (2019). The Wiring of Intelligence. Perspectives on Psychological Science. open access open access & PsyArXiv Preprints

Jinkinson Smith. Genome-wide association studies of intelligence: a review of the literature. Authorea. June 13, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22541/au.156043260.01203836 preprint

Via Steve Pittelly https://twitter.com/StevePittelli/status/1192552407798099986

Per Engzell and Felix C. Tropf (2019). Heritability of education rises with intergenerational mobility. PNAS open access

Loic YengoMorgan SidariKarin J. H. VerweijPeter M. VisscherMatthew C. KellerBrendan P. Zietsch (2020). No Evidence for Social Genetic Effects or Genetic Similarity Among Friends Beyond that Due to Population Stratification: A Reappraisal of Domingue et al (2018) abstract

SP Hagenaars and many others (2016). Shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and physical and mental health in UK Biobank (N =112 151) and 24 GWAS consortia. Molecular Psychiatry (2016) 21, 1624-1632; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.225; published online 26 January 2016 open

C.M.A. Haworth and many others (2010). The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood. Molecular Psychiatry open

Viewing Education Policy through a Genetic Lens Kathryn Asbury & Jonathan Waisci-hub.tw/10.1080/15582159.2019.1705008

28 JAN CHARLES MURRAY'S "HUMAN DIVERSITY" Posted at 14:51h in Uncategorized by Eric Turkheimer blog

Michelle N. Meyer, Patrick Turley, and Daniel J. Benjamin (Feb 3, 2020). Response to Charles Murray on Polygenic Scores. blog

Kathy J. Cooke (1998). The Limits of Heredity: Nature and Nurture in American Eugenics Before 1915. Journal of the History of Biology, 31, 263-278. academia.edu

Edwin Grant Conklin (1915). Heredity and environment in the development of man. archive.org

A. H. Halsey: Social mobility. In G. A. Harrison & A. J. Boyce (Eds.) (1972). The structure of human populations. Clarendon Press.

Wat dacht Halsey over IQ en erfelijkheid, rond 1970?

Tim T Morris, Neil M Davies, George Davey Smith (2020). Can education be personalised using pupils' genetic data? open

Tim T. Morris, Neil M. Davies, Gibran Hemani and George Davey Smith (2020). Population phenomena inflate genetic associations of complex social traits. Science Advances 15 Apr 2020: Vol. 6, no. 16, eaay0328 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay0328 via Eric Turkheimer https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1252936475202801664open

Benjamin Domingue Sam Trejo Emma Armstrong-Carter Elliot Tucker-Drob (2020). Interactions between polygenic scores and environments: Methodological and conceptual challenges SocArXiv Papers open

Steven P R Rose (2006). Commentary: Heritability estimates—long past their sell-by date. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006;35:525-527 Advance Access publication 27 April 2006 doi:10.1093/ije/dyl064 open access

Zie ook Steven Rose (18 october 2013) School achievement isn't just in your genes. Anyone who asserts that educational attainment is in large part inherited needs a lesson in modern genetics, says a professor of biology. (On Cummings!)

There is No Nature-Nurture War. by Scott Barry Kaufman, January 18, 2019 in Blog blog

Eric Turkheimer (August 22, 2019). The Shiny—and Potentially Dangerous—New Tool for Predicting Human Behavior blog

Elliot M Tucker-Drob 1, Mijke Rhemtulla, K Paige Harden, Eric Turkheimer, David Fask (2011). Emergence of a Gene X Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Infant Mental Ability Between 10 Months and 2 Years. Psychol Sci. 2011 Jan;22(1):125-33. doi: 10.1177/0956797610392926. open

Jan Noordman (1992). Het eugenetisch optimisme van Heymans. De Psycholoog, oktober, 432-436.

The Inflated Promise of Genomic Medicine COVID-19 has laid bare the need to reconsider the hope and money we invest in genetics research. By Erik Parens on June 1, 2020 Scientific American

Karri Silventoinen, Aline Jelenkovic, […]Jaakko Kaprio (2020). Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment: an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts. Scientific Reports volume 10, Article number: 12681 (2020). Open access

W. T. Dickens & J. R. Flynn (2001). Heritability estimates versus large environmetal effects: The IQ paradox resolved. Psychological Review, 108 346-369 abstract and pdf researchgate.net

Op deze abstract-pagina ook een reeks direct relevante artikelen:

Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Implications of the restricted range of family environments for estimates of heritability and nonshared environment in behavior-genetic adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 392- 409. DOI:- 10.1037/0033-2909.125.4.392 abstract and some relevant literature

Pieter J. van Strien (2003). De opvoedbaarheid van de intelligentie. Een oud strijdpunt tussen pedagogen en psychologen. Pedagogiek, 23e jaargang • 2 • 2003 • 122 -136 pdf

Zajonc, R. B., & Mullaly, P. R. (1997). Birth order: Reconciling conflicting effects. American psychologust, 52, 685-699. pdf

W. F. Wertheim (1972). Intelligentieverschillen in het licht van de sociologie. Wetenschap en Samenleving, Orgaan van het Verbond van Wetenschappelijke Onderzoekers, 26, 156-172 Dit artikel is een soort van vervolg op zijn vrijwel gelijknamige artikel 'Intelligentieverschillen in het licht der sociologie' in De Nieuwe Stem, 7, p. 9 e.v. [Dit opstel verschijnt ongeveer gelijktijdig in enigszins uitgebreider vorm in het Tijdschrift 'Psychologische Achtergronden'.]en nu ook in dbnl te lezen: dbnl

Robert M. Kirkpatrick, Lisa N. Legrand, William G. Iacono, Matt McGue (2011). A twin and adoption study of reading achievement: Exploration of shared-environmental and gene-environment-interaction effects. Learning and Individual Differences 21, 368-375. academia.edu

A twin and adoption study of reading achievement: Exploration of shared-environmental and gene-environment-interaction effects. Robert M. Kirkpatrick ⁎, Lisa N. Legrand, William G. Iacono, Matt McGue (2011). Learing and Individual Differences, 21, 368-375 academia.edu

Samuel H. Preston, and Cameron Campbell (1993). Differential Fertility and the Distribution of Traits: The Case of IQ. SYMPOSIUM ON INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION 10.1086/230135 abstract

James S. Coleman (1993). Comment on Preston and Campbell's "Differential Fertility and the Distribution of Traits" 10.1086/230137 preview & JSTOR read online

Willim G. Hill (2014). Applications of Population Genetics to Animal Breeding, from Wright, Fisher and Lush to Genomic Prediction. Genetics, 196 1-16open

Carl F. Craver, Mikhail Dozmorov, Mark Reimers, and Kenneth S. Kendler (). Gloomy Prospects and Roller Coasters: Finding Coherence in Genome-Wide Association. Studies Philosophy of Science 87, Number 5 abstract

Madrid-Valero, J.J., Chapman, R., Bailo, E.- et al.- What Do People Know About the Heritability of Sleep?.- Behav Genet- (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-021-10041-3 paywalled

[nog niet via scihub]

Deary, I.J., Cox, S.R. & Hill, W.D. Genetic variation, brain, and intelligence differences. Mol Psychiatry (2021). open access [via Eric Turkheimer https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1358455103217352704]

Kathy J. Cooke (1998). The Limits of Heredity: Nature and Nurture in American Eugenics Before 1915. Journal of the History of Biology 31: 263-278 academia.edu

Nasa Sinnott-Armstrong, Sahin Naqvi, Manuel Rivas, Jonathan K Pritchard (20121). GWAS of three molecular traits highlights core genes and pathways alongside a highly polygenic background open access Draadje van Kevin Mitchell https://twitter.com/WiringTheBrain/status/1362716247071285249

Bart Penders & A. Cecile J. W. Janssens (2021). Do we measure or compute polygenic risk scores? Why language matters. Human Genetics. 10.1007/s00439-021-02262-7 open access

Kathy J. Cooke (1998). The Limits of Heredity: Nature and Nurture in American Eugenics Before 1915 Journal of the History of Biology 31: 263-278, academia.edu

Barry Mehler (1997). Beyondism: Raymond B. Cattell and the New Eugenics Originally published in Genetica 99: 153-163 Revised for posting on ISAR web page, January 1998. http://www.ferris.edu/HTMLS/OTHERSRV/ISAR/bios/Cattell/genetica.htm academia.edu

Dar-Nimrod, I., & Heine, S. J. (2011). Genetic essentialism: On the deceptive determinism of DNA. Psychological Bulletin, 137(5), 800-818. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021860 abstract

Jay Joseph (September 3, 2019). A 'Blueprint' for Genetic Determinismblog

Kathryn Paige Harden (march 2021). The science of terrible men/ The pioneers of social genetics were racists and eugenicists: should we give up on the science they founded altogether?

Barry Mehler (1997). Beyondism: Raymond B. Cattell and the New Eugenics. Genetica 99: 153-163. academia.edu

CAUSATION AND MECHANISM. Posted at 13:14h in Uncategorized by Eric Turkheimer 11 june 2019 blog

E. E. Maccoby (2000). Parenting and its effects on children. On reading and misreading behavior genetics. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 1-27. open access

Gilbert Gottlieb (1995). Some Conceptual Deficiencies in "Developmental" Behavior Genetics. Human Development, v38 n3 p131-41 abstract

Turkheimer, E., Goldsmith, H. H., & Gottesman, I. I. (1995). "Some conceptual deficiencies in 'developmental' behavior genetics": Comment. Human Development, 38(3), 143-153. https://doi.org/10.1159/000278307 abstract

Eric Turkheimer (2000). Three laws of behavior genetics and what they mean. Current directions in Psychological Science http://people.virginia.edu/~ent3c/papers2/three_laws.pdpdf

Eric Turkheimer (2016). Weak Genetic Explanation 20 Years Later. Reply to Plomin et al. Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 11 24-28 https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691615617442 abstract & pdf

Abstract Plomin, DeFries, Knopik, and Neiderhiser (2016, this issue) are correct in their assertion that many discoveries of behavior genetics have proven to be robust and replicable. I note, in contrast, that more specific assertions about the role of genetics in the development of behavior have failed to replicate. Reflecting on why more general findings replicate better than specific ones sheds light on the difficulties of studying complex human development and on the role played by genes in determining its course.

Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Eric Turkheimer (2021). Galton's Quincunx: Probabilistic causation in developmental behavior genetics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 10.1016/j.shpsa.2021.04.001 abstract

Sara A. Hart, Callie Little & Elsje van Bergen (2021). Nurture might be nature: cautionary tales and proposed solutions npj science of learningopen access

J. E. Schulte (1938). Erfelijkheid en eugenetiek. I Wetenschappelijke grondslagen. II Toepassing der erfelijkheidsleer. Haarlem: Bohn. Het is een buiten verwachting vriendelijk en positief boek. Er staan dus geen gekke dingen in, de toon is zeker niet nationaal-socialistisch, daar is het te wetenschappelijk voor; ook is Schulte, arts en chirurg, niet van zins om tot ingrijpen over te gaan (steriliseren etcetera). Vriendelijk dus. Geen onmenselijke acties ondernemen. Schulte (1941): Is de intelligentie erfelijk? https://ugp.rug.nl/MenM/article/download/14400/11905. "nakomelingen van geniale personen blinken als regel niet uit"[Schulte 1941: 'Is de intelligentie erfelijk?' https://ugp.rug.nl/MenM/article/download/14400/11905. "nakomelingen van geniale personen blinken als regel niet uit"

Biyao Wang Jessie R. Baldwin Tabea Schoeler Rosa Cheesman Wikus Barkhuizen Frank Dudbridge David Bann Tim T. Morris Jean-Baptiste Pingault (2021). Robust genetic nurture effects on education: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on 38,654 families across 8 cohorts. AJHG DOI

Ryutaro Uchiyama, Rachel Spicer, Michael Muthukrishna (2021). Cultural Evolution of Genetic Heritability. preprint

L. Raffington, P.T. Tanksley, A. Sabhlok, L. Vinnik, T. Mallard, S. King, B. Goosby, K.P. Harden, E.M. Tucker-Drob (2021). Socially stratified epigenetic profiles are associated with cognitive functioning in children and adolescents abstract download

Elsje van Bergen Sara Hart Antti Latvala Eero Vuoksimaa Asko Tolvanen Minna Torppa (2021). Literacy skills seem to fuel literacy enjoyment, rather than vice versa. PsyArXiv Preprints preprint

Kathy Cooke (1998). The Limits of Heredity: Nature and Nurture in American Eugenics Before 1915. Journal of the history of biology academia.edu

Augustine Kong, Stefania Benonisdottir, and Alexander I. Young (2021) Family Analysis with Mendelian Imputations. preprint via Eric Turkheimer

Ik heb het artikel vluchtig bekeken, en kan wel zeggen dat ik er weinig of niets van begrijp. Ik zou graag een heldere uitleg zien van wat hier 'direct effect' wordt genoemd, en waarom dat echt anders is dan wat gewoonlijk op basis van GWAS-onderzoek effect (verklaarde variante) wordt genoemd. Ik reken erop dat Eric Turkheimer er wel een blogje aan zal gaan wagen.

Intergenerational Transmission of Skills (ITS) research project website

Jacobs, B., Vermeulen, S., van der Velden, R., (2021).- The Intergenerational Transmission of Skills dataset. (ROA Technical Reports; Vol. ROA-TR-2021/, No. 007). Maastricht: Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market. pdf

Exploring the Uncharted Waters of- Educational Mobility: The Role of Key Skills Babs Jacobs, Rolf van der Velden- (2021).- ROA Research Memoranda No. 006

The Intergenerational Transmission of Cognitive Skills: An Investigation of the Causal Impact of Families on Student Outcomes. Eric A. Hanushek,- Babs Jacobs, Guido Schwerdt,- Rolf van der Velden,- Stan Vermeulen, Simon Wiederhold (2021).- ROA Research Memoranda No. 007

Eric Turkheimer & Paige Harden (). Behavior Genetic Research Methods. Testing Quasi-Causal Hypotheses Using Multivariate Twin Data. pdf via Eric https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1459522042907308032

Polderman, T., Benyamin, B., de Leeuw, C. et al. Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nat Genet 47, 702-709 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3285 abstract, references Via Eric Turkheimer

Polygenic Risk Score Task Force of the International Common Disease Alliance. Responsible use of polygenic risk scores in the clinic: potential benefits, risks and gaps. Nat Med (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01549-6open via @cecilejanssens https://twitter.com/cecilejanssens/status/1460595990390521860

Evan J. Giangrande, Eric Turkheimer (2021). Race, Ethnicity, and the Scarr-Rowe Hypothesis: A Cautionary Example of Fringe Science Entering the Mainstream. Perspectives on Psychological Science abstract via Eric Turkheimer https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1461760118530486272 [preprint]

Stephen M. Downes & Eric Turkheimer (2021). An Early History of the Heritability Coefcient Applied to Humans (1918-1960). Biological Theory pdf

Thomas Frisell, Yudi Pawitan, Niklas Langström (2021). Is the Association between General Cognitive Ability and Violent Crime Caused by Family-Level Confounders? PlosOne open

James J. Lee and many many others (2018). Gene discovery and polygenic prediction from a genome-wide association study of educationalattainment in 1.1 million individuals Nature Genetics, 50, 1112-1121. open via 'The genetic lottery' note 24 ch 1

Laura E. Engelhardt1, Daniel A. Briley1,2, Frank D. Mann1, K. Paige Harden1,2, and Elliot M. Tucker-Drob (2015). Genes Unite Executive Functions in Childhood. Psychological Science OnlineFirst, published on July 8, 2015 as doi:10.1177/0956797615577209 pdf

Phillip D. Koellinger & K. Paige Harden (2018). 'Using nature to understand nurture', Science 359, # 6374: 386-87 10.1126/science.aar6429

Augustine Kong et al. (2018). 'The nature of nurture: effects of parental genotypes' Science 359, #6374: 424-28386-87 doi.org/10.1126/science.aan6877

Aysu Okbay, Yeda Wu, …Alexander I. Young (2022). Polygenic prediction of educational attainment within and between families from genome-wide association analyses in 3 million individuals. Nature genetics Zie vooral ook het draadje van Eric https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1509576563515445254 open

Eric Turkheimer (6 april 2022) op Twitter [regression of GCSE score onto the within-family variation in the EA4 PGI]tweet

Matthews, L. J., & Turkheimer, E. (2019). Across the great divide: pluralism and the hunt for missing heritability.- scihub

Eric Turkheimer (May 12, 2022). Peter Visscher on the Genomics of Complex Human Traits blog

Peter Visscher article

Eric Turkheimer (May 17, 2022). 'Still thinking about Peter Visscher's essay and reply' twitter thread [The reply: comment on the blog http://turkheimer.com/peter-visscher-on-the-genomics-of-complex-human-traits/#comments ]

Ed Yong (). An enormous study of the genes related to staying in school. Science [Over een onderzoek van Peter Visscher en vele anderen. ] web page The Atlantic

Tim T Morris, Neil M Davies, George Davey Smith (2020). Can education be personalised using pupils' genetic data? open access

Robert Plomin & John Crabbe (2000). DNA. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 806-828 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.126.6.806 scihub pdf

K. Paige Harden (2022). Genetic determinism, essentialism and reductionism: semantic clarity for contested science. Nature Reviews Genetics https://www.nature.com/articles/s41576-022-00537-x Springer SharedIt & Twitter thread

Lucas J. Matthews, Eric Turkheimer (2022). Three legs of the missing heritability problem. Studies in history and philosophy of science, 93, June, 183-191. abstract


R. A. Fisher (1919). XV. The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance.. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 52, pp 399-433 doi:10.1017/S0080456800012163

Tina Baier, Espen Moen Eilertsen, Eivind Ystrom, Imac M. Zambranac, Torkild H. Lyngstad (2022). An Anatomy of the Intergenerational Correlation of Educational Attainment-Learning from the Educational Attainments of Norwegian Twins and their Children. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Available online 7 April 2022 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027656242200018X via https://twitter.com/torkildl/status/1515016192523747332

Carl Veller & Graham Coop (2023). Interpreting population and family-based genome-wide association studies in the presence of confounding. bioRxiv. pdf via https://twitter.com/ent3c/status/1631304996477173763

Thalida Em Arpawong, Margaret Gatz, Catalina Zavala, Tara L. Gruenewald, Ellen E. Walters and Carol A. Prescott (2023). Nature, Nurture, and the Meaning of Educational Attainment: Differences by Sex and Socioeconomic Status. (Published online by Cambridge University Press: 13 March 2023) Twin Research and Human Genetics open

Eric Turkheimer thread about: article preprint


via Jay Joseph https://twitter.com/jayjoseph22/status/1651661885442502657

Pedigree data to understand indirect genetic effects on offspring educational outcomes. Michel Guillaume Nivard Daniel Belsky Kathryn Paige Harden Tina Baier Ole A. Andreassen Eivind Ystrom Elsje van Bergen Torkild Hovde Lyngstad (2023). preprint

Lindsay Macmillan & Emma Tominey (2023). Parental inputs and socio-economic gaps in early child development. Journal of Population Economics, 36, 1513-1543 open access

Thomas J. Bouchard Jr. (2023). The Garden of Forking Paths; An Evaluation of Joseph's 'A Reevaluation of the 1990 “Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart” IQ Study' Twin Research and Human Genetics open access, via Jay Joseph tweet

James W. Madole1 & K. Paige Harden (2022). Building Causal Knowledge in Behavior Genetics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences ppreprint

Eric Turkheimer (september 11, 2023). On the big list of causes. In response to: Building causal knowledge in behavior genetics. i>Behavioral and Brain Sciences pdf

Callie H. Burt (2022). Challenging the utility of polygenic scores for social science: Environmental confounding, downward causation, and unknown biology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences download

Nicholas Judd, Bruno Sauce and Torkel Klingberg (2022). Schooling substantially improves intelligence, but neither lessens nor widens the impacts of socioeconomics and genetics. Nature. npj | science of learning open

The ethical implications of social and behavioral genomics. The Hastings Center Report, 53, issue S1. March-April 2023. free

Cognitive ability and education: How behavioural genetic research has advanced our knowledge and understanding of their association. Margherita Malanchini, Kaili Rimfeld, Andrea G. Allegrini, Stuart J. Ritchie, Robert Plomin (2020). Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 111, 229-245. abstract

Ben Williamson, Dimitra Kotouza, Martyn Pickersgill & Jessica Pykett (2024). Infrastructuring Educational Genomics: Associations, Architectures, and Apparatuses open

Daniel J. Kevles (1985). In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. Knopf. 0394507029 annas archive

Robert Wald Sussman (2018). The myth of race. Harvard University Press 9780674660038 . #eugenics


Michael G. Hanchard (2018). The spectre of race. How discrimination haunts Western democracy. Princeton University Press. annas archive org

Jay Joseph 2024: 'The Bell Curveat 30: A Closer Look at the Within-and Between-Group IQ Genetic Evidence' https://osf.io/preprints/psyarxiv/jz7ku.

Tabea Schoeler, Doug Speed, Eleonora Porcu, Nicola Pirastu, Jean-Baptiste Pingault & Zoltán Kutalik (2023). Participation bias in the UK Biobank distorts genetic associations and downstream analyses. Nature Human Behaviourpdf open

GWAS: What are we measuring: population stratification/bias, or heritability?

Simon Haworth a.o. (2019). Apparent latent structure within the UK Biobank sample has implications for epidemiological analysis. Nature Communications open

Carl Veller, Graham M. Coop (2024). Interpreting population- and family-based genome-wide association studies in the presence of confounding. PLOS Biology abstract open access

"We conclude that, while family-based studies have placed GWAS estimation on a more rigorous footing, they carry subtle issues of interpretation that arise from confounding."

Jay Joseph and Ken Richards (2024). The Bell Curve at 30: A Closer Look at the Within- and Between-Group IQ Genetic Evidence. PsyArXiv Preprints pre-print It will appear in the edited book "The Heredity Hoax: Challenging Flawed Genetic Theories of Human Development," forthcoming with Routledge. R. M. Lerner & G. Greenberg, eds.

April 2024 \ contact ben at at at benwilbrink.nl    

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English translation of the code of integrity, download it here ‪https://easy.dans.knaw.nl/ui/datasets/id/easy-dataset:110600/tab/2 ‬