Ben Wilbrink

See also persoonlijke_verschillen.htm

Madeline Crosswaite and Kathryn Asbury (2018). Teacher beliefs about the aetiology of individual differences in cognitive ability, and the relevance of behavioural genetics to education. British Journal of Educational Psychology abstract

Theodore M. Porter (2018). Genetics in the madhouse. The unknown history of human heredity.. Princeton UP [UB Leiden Psycho C10.0 536] info and open access to Introductory chapter.

Heritability in the genomics era — concepts and misconceptions. Peter M. Visscher, William G. Hill & Naomi R. Wray. Nature Reviews Genetics volume 9, pages 255–266 (2008) doi:10.1038/nrg2322 abstract

With a box on heritability of intelligence (IQ).

Yulia Kovas and very many othes (2015). Why children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 80, 51-63. open access

D. Zabaneh and others (). A genome-wide association study for extremely high intelligence. Nature.ope access

Han L. J. van der Maas, Conor V. Dolan, Raoul P. P. P. Grasman, Jelte M. Wicherts, Hilde M. Huizenga, and Maartje E. J. Raijmakers (2006). A Dynamical Model of General Intelligence: The Positive Manifold of Intelligence by Mutualism Psychological Review, 113, 842-861. pdf

Ninety-nine independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function include genes associated with brain health and structure (N = 280,360) Gail Davies and very many others preprint

Louis Lello and others (2017). Accurate Genomic Prediction Of Human Height. open access

Eveline L. de Zeeuw, Eco J.C. de Geus & Dorret I. Boomsma (2015). Meta-analysis of twin studies highlights the importance of genetic variation in primary school educational achievement Trends in Neuroscience and Education 4 (2015) 69–76 view pdf

P. A. Vroon, J. de Leeuw & A. C. Meester (1986). Distributions of intelligence and educational level in fathers and sons. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 137-142. abstract

A. D. de Groot (1980). Vroon's neutraliteit. P. A. Vroon (1980). Wat is richtsnoer: rede of vooroordeel? De Psycholoog, XV, 149-154, 155-158.

Karri Silventoinen and many others (2015). The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits Twin Research and Human Genetics Volume 18 Number 4 pp. 348–360 2015 doi:10.1017/thg.2015.29

A. Anastasi (1958). Heredity, environment, and the question 'How?' Psychological Review, 65, 197-208. pdf

A. Anastasi (1976). Common fallacies about heredity, environment, and human behavior. In W. A. Mehrens: Readings in measurement and evaluation in education and psychology. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. pdf of report

Katrina L. Grasby a.o. (2017). Little Evidence That Socioeconomic Status Modifies Heritability of Literacy and Numeracy in Australia. Child Development sci-hub.cc

Grasby, Katrina L., Little, Callie W., Byrne, Brian, Coventry, William L., Olson, Richard K., Larsen, Sally, & Samuelsson, Stefan (2019). Estimating classroom-level influences on literacy and numeracy: A twin study. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000418abstract

Benjamin S. Bloom (1964). Stability and change in human characteristics. New York: Wiley. lccc 64-17133 abstract

Muenks, K., Miele, D. B., Rowe, M. L., Ramani, G. B., & Stapleton, L. M. (2015). Parental beliefs about the fixedness of ability. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 41, 78-89. researchgate

"Specifically, the more parents believed that abilities were fixed, the less frequently they reported engaging in math- and reading-related activities." My question: are there third variables explaining the relation? Such as SES.

Genes, behavior, and behavior genetics Evan Charney WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1405

temp. open access

Large Cross-National Differences in Gene × Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Intelligence Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, Timothy C. Bates (2015). [geen pdf?] Psychological Science abstract & references

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition Across Development and Context Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, Daniel A. Briley, and K. Paige Harden (2013). Current Directions in Psychological Science 22(5) 349–355 pdf

Jerome Kagan (2003). Biology, context, and developmental inquiry. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 1-23. abstract

Maciej Trzaskowski, Nicholas G. Shakeshaft & Robert Plomin (2014). Intelligence indexes generalist genes for cognitive abilities. Intelligence, 41, 560-565. free access

Stuart J. Ritchie and Timothy C. Bates & Robert Plomin (2014). Does Learning to Read Improve Intelligence? A Longitudinal Multivariate Analysis in Identical Twins From Age 7 to 16. Child Development open access

Ben Wilbrink (1972). html

Added on that webpage: literature on heritability of differences in achievement and intelligence

Theoretical Concepts in the Genetics of Personality Development Elliot M. Tucker-Drob & Daniel A. Briley (2018?). To appear in: Dan P. McAdams, Rebecca L. Shiner, and Jennifer L. Tackett (Eds.) Handbook of Personality Development pdf concept

Richard E. Nisbett, Joshua Aronson, Clancy Blair, William Dickens, James Flynn, Diane F. Halpern, Eric Turkheimer (2012). Intelligence. New Findings and Theoretical Developments. American Psychologist, 67, 130-159 open access

Richard E. Nisbett (2013). Schooling makes you smarter. What teachers need to know about IQ. American Educator Spring, 10-39. pdf

Nicholas G. Shakeshaft , Maciej Trzaskowski, Andrew McMillan, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Claire M. A. Haworth, Philip S. Dale, Robert Plomin (2013). Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341 open access

David Perkins, Shari Tishman, Ron Ritchhart, Kiki Donis, and Al An- drade (2000). Intelligence in the Wild. A Dispositional View of Intellectual Traits Educational Psychology Review, 12, 269-293. concept

Stuart Ritchie Elliot Tucker-Drob (2018). How much does education improve intelligence? A meta-analysis. Psychological Science abstract also a preprint

S. Selzam, E. Krapohl, S. von Stumm, P. F. O'Reilly, K. Rimfeld, Y. Kovas, P. S. Dale, J. J. Lee & R. Plomin (2017). Predicting educational achievement from DNA. Molecular Psychiatry, 22, 267–272 open access

Augustine Kong (2017). The nature of nurture: effects of parental genotypes. preprint

Robert C. Bannister (1979). Social darwinism. Science and myth in Anglo-American thought. Temple University Press. isbn 0877221553

Eva Krapohla, Kaili Rimfelda, Nicholas G. Shakeshafta, Maciej Trzaskowskia, Andrew McMillana, Jean-Baptiste Pingaulta, Kathryn Asbury, Nicole Harlaard, Yulia Kovasa,e,f, Philip S. Daleg, and Robert Plomin (2017). The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. open access

Richard J. Haier (2017). The neuroscience of intelligence. Cambridge University Press. [UBL geleend, toch?] Ch 1.

Exercise genetics: seeking clarity from noise. Craig Pickering, John Kiely (2017). open access

Culture–gene coevolutionary psychology: cultural learning, language, and ethnic psychology. Cristina Moya and Joseph Henrich (2016). ScienceDirect Current Opinion in Psychology 2016, 8:112–118 open access

OPINION: 2017 Constance Holden Memorial Address: Liberal Creationism Toby Young open access

Behavior Research Methods The reliability paradox: Why robust cognitive tasks do not produce reliable individual differences. Craig Hedge Georgina PowellPetroc Sumner open access

Inga Schwabe, Luc Janss and Stéphanie M. van den Berg (2017). Can We Validate the Results of Twin Studies? A Census-Based Study on the Heritability of Educational Achievement. Front. Genet. open access

Draadje Tim van der Zee Twitter

James Flynn (2016). Does your Family Make You Smarter? Nature, Nurture, and Human Autonomy. info.

The first chapter 'Twins and autonomy' is some kind of summary. James Flynn will conclude the following (quote)

First, that whatever families do to upgrade the cognitive quality of the home persists long enough to influence their children's fate at the crucial age of 17. Second, that whatever society does to upgrade the cognitive environment of children has the same consequences (..). Third, that genes and luck notwithstanding, all of us, both in childhood and maturity, have the capacity to choose to significantly enhance our cognitive performance.

p. 9

Chapter 2 starts serious business. The important concept here seems to be the cognitive quality of the family environment. No, Flynn does not explain what it is, at least not on p. 12 (but see appendix p. 180). Neither does he point out that there is a strenuous relation between that concept and the family genes. Having said that, it seems impossible that the child's genes and the cognitive quality of the family environment are independent variables, not being correlated. This is one of the stumble blocks making it difficult to understand what exactly Flynn is trying to do in this first part of his new book.

Ch 2 p. 13, introduces a serious confusion of 'true' and 'measured' vocabulary. What exactly does Flynn mean where he writes 'students whose vocabulary puts them at +2 SD above average'? Is it 'true' vocabuary, or is it 'level of performace' (on a vocab test) as mentioned in the preceding sentence? Is it possible for a psychometrician to conclude from some top score on a vocab test that a particular student is 98th percentile in true vocabulary? In his tables Flynn strongly suggests they are dealing with observed scores. Yet it is impossible for a +2 SD score to correspond to a +2 SD 'true' vocabulary. Flynn is talking of true vocabularies and observed vocabularies (at +1 SD etcetera) at the same time.

Ch 2, p. 18, turns the reasoning around, without mentioning as much; '.. those who would get an SAT-R score of 544, if they came from from a home typical of of those who score at that level.

Appendix 1 p. 181 at the top: 'eliminating 30 percent from the bottom of a normal curve lifts the SD of the remainder by 0.4967 SD.' This is utterly confusing; the first 'SD' should be 'median' to make it reasonable. And again in the second alinea. Proof: how Flynn talks in the second half of this page. Back to. the top passage 1): I do not understand the reasoning here at all. Yet it is crucial to everything else that follows.

For the time being, I give up on the first part of Flynn's Does your family make you smarter. I do not understand what he is doing here, it is a big thought experiment. The second part of the book is very interesting, does not however touch on the title theme.

High heritability of IQ (tested in adult age), what is its significance, if any? For starters, the question itself is a reification of the abstraction. A test is an instrument, not a societal goal. These issues confused my reading of Flynn's 'Does your family make you smarter'? https://twitter.com/benwilbrink/status/947094569509892096 Richard Nisbett does not confuse me. In his 2009 ‘Intelligence and how to get it’ ‪http://books.wwnorton.com/books/Intelligence-and-How-to-Get-It/ …‬ p. 38: “The degree of heritability of IQ places constraint on the degree of modifiability that is possible. All geneticists accept this principle, but hereditarians often acknowledge the principle and then go on to write as if heritability does in fact place limits on modifiability.” An example in the last category: Asbury & Plomin 2014 ‘G is for genes’

Flynn does not touch on expertise (Anders Ericsson) and how that relates to common smartness. Yet it seems to be the case that the phenomena of expertness show the concept of rather fixed intelligence to be at fault, in somewhat the same way the existence of 'Flynn-effects' does.

James Flynn (2013). Intelligence and human progress: The story of what was hidden in our genes. Elsevier. [eBook in KB]

The Impact of Variation in Twin Relatedness on Estimates of Heritability and Environmental Influences. researchgate [no pdf]

William Dickens & James Flynn (2001). Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved. July 2001Psychological Review 108(3):549-549 pdf

William Dickens (2005). Genetic differences and school readiness. February 2005The Future of Children 15(1):55-69. researchgate (complete issue)

Sandra Scarr (1988). How genotypes and environments combine: development and individual differences. In Niall Bolger, Avshalom Caspi, Geraldine Downey & Martha Moorehause (Eds.): Persons in context. Developmental processes. Cambridge University Press. isbn 052135577x (217-244). summary

M. Stoolmiller (1999). Implications of the restricted range of family environments for estimates of heritability and nonshared environment in behavior-genetic adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 392-409. [full-text requested] [pdf via https://sci-hub.la/] [merkwaardig dat ik dit artikel in 1999. niet lijk te hebben opgemerkt] abstract

Callie H. Burt. Heritability studies: Methodological flaws, Invalidated dogmas, and changing paradigms. Advances in Medical Sociology: Health, Genetics, & Society 16, forthcoming 2015. researchgate

Robert Plomin, Sophie von Stumm (2018). The new genetics of intelligence. Nature Reviews Genetics, 19, 148-159 doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.104 open

Genomic analysis of family data reveals additional genetic effects on intelligence and personality. William David Hill (2017?). pdf preprint

Michael le Page (2017). DNA variants that are bad for health may also make you stupid. DAILY NEWS 20 June 2017. article

Genomic analysis of family data reveals additional genetic effects on intelligence and personality. W. David Hill, Ruben C. Arslan and others (2018). Molecular Psychiatry (2018) doi:10.1038/s41380-017-0005-1 {paywalled, pdf not yet acquired] abstract

PUBLIC RELEASE: 9-JAN-2018 Identical twins can share more than identical genes BAYLOR COLLEGE OF MEDICINE article


Dean Keith Simonton (2003). Francis Galton's Hereditary Genius. Its place in the history and psychology of science. pp 3-19 in R. J. Sternberg (Ed.). The anatomy of impact. What has made the great works of psychology great. APA PSYCHO D1.1.-37  (nog niet geleend) info

Dean Keith Simonton (2014). Historiometric Studies of Genius 87-106 in Dean Keith Simonton (Ed.) (2014). The Wiley Handbook of Genius Wiley. PSYCHO P4.2.2.-114 info

Catharine Cox (1926). The early mental traits of three hundred geniuses. Volume II of Genetic Studies of Genius. Stanford University Press. archive.org

Having skimmed the conclusions: Cox assumes intelligence to be innate. Her last sentence:

Han L. J. Van Der Maas, "kees-jan Kan, Maarten Marsman and Claire E. Stevenson (2017). Network Models for Cognitive Development and Intelligence. J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 16; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020016 open access

The paradox of intelligence: Heritability and malleability coexist in hidden gene-environment interplay.  Pages 26-47. Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D. (2018).  http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000131  Psychological Bulletin paywalled see also: https://neurosciencenews.com/inherited-iq-kids-8356/

Augustine Kong and many, many others (2018). The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes. Science, 359, 424-428 open access

Barbara Beatty (1998). From Laws of Learning to a Science of Values Efficiency and Morality in Thorndike's Educational Psychology. October 1998 American Psychologist Vol. 53, No. 10, I145-1152 pdf [Edward L. Thorndike]

Richard E. Nisbett (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York, NY: Norton. isbn 9780393065053 [UBL PSYCHO C6.-148 ] info

Jelte M. Wicherts, Conor V. Dolan, Jerry S. Carlson, Han L. J. van der Maas (2009). Raven's test performance of sub-Saharan Africans: Average performance, psychometric properties, and the Flynn Effect. Learning and Individual Differences pdf

Jop van Kampen (12-2-2018). Wetenschappers twisten over de vraag: hoe aangeboren is IQ? Het Parool .

Robert J. Sternberg & Elena Grigorenko (Eds.) (1997). Intelligence, heredity, and environment. Cambridge University Press. --> contents and access

Robert Plomin & Gerald E. McClearn (Eds.) (1993). Nature, nurture & psychology. Washington, DC. American Psychological Association. isbn 1557982023 info


Frank Miele (2002). Intelligence, race, and genetics. Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen. Westview Press. isbn 081334008X Mag dus tzt ook naar Boekenzolder --> reviewed

Careful study, lots of people involved more or less actively. Author has an axe to grind: heritability estimates in the mainstream literature are wy too high. Criticised by Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr. abstract.

Handbook of Behavior Genetics pp 81-99 | Twin Studies of General Mental Ability. Authors Nancy L. SegalEmail authorWendy Johnsonpreview

"Twin research on behavioral and medical traits, in general, and on intelligence, in particular, has advanced at an impressive rate."

Race, Genetics, and Scientific Integrity Jerry Hirsch From: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved Volume 2, Number 3, Winter 1991 pp. 331-334 | 10.1353/hpu.2010.0046 abstract

Race, genes, and disparity. This blog: Race, genes, & intelligence, references. dated 2011. wordpress

Stephen Ceci & Wendy M. Williams (2009). Darwin 200: Should scientists study race and IQ? YES: The scientific truth must be pursued Nature open

The Intellectual War on Science. It's wreaking havoc in universities and jeopardizing the progress of research. By Steven Pinker Feb 13, 2018 The Chronicle of Higher Education site

Roxanne Connellya & Vernon Gayleb (2018). An investigation of Social Class Inequalities in General Cognitive Ability in Two British Birth Cohorts. SocArXiv Papers. open

Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence. Suzanne Sniekers, Sven Stringer[…]Danielle Posthuma. Nature Genetics volume 49, pages 1107–1112 (2017) doi:10.1038/ng.3869 abstract

Aron K. Barbey (2018). Network Neuroscience Theory of Human Intelligence Trends in Cognitive Sciences, open access

Jonathan Wai Ph.D. How the “Cafeteria of Experience” Impacts Our Development. Without sufficient opportunity attaining expertise is highly unlikely. Posted Feb 21, 2018 blog

LISTEN: Why we need to talk about the role of genetics in education – Dr Kathryn Asbury talks to Tes Podagogy. Tes Editorial Staff. 21st February 2018 pocast & text

I am worried. Deeply.

Hans J. Eysenck (Ed.) (1973). The measurement of intelligence. Readings selected and comments written by H. J. Eysenck. Lancaster: MTP Medical and Technical Publishing Co. Ltd. SBN 852000596

Robert Cancro (Ed.) (1971). Intelligence: genetic and environmental influences. Grune & Stratton. lccc 79-153576.

Alfred Binet & Théodore Simon (1916/1973 reprint). The development of intelligence in children. (The Binet-Simon Scale). Translated by Elizabeth S. Kite. Reprint: New York Arno Press. isbn 0405051350 online

Stephen Jay Gould (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton. isbn 0393300560 preface to 2nd edition 1996

A terrible book (and terribly popular on top of that), or is it? Needs to be studied alongside serious criticisms by psychologists. Gould might be right, I am beginning to suspect these days ;-)

L. E. W. van Albada (1956). Intelligentie en lichamelijke gesteldheid. Resultaten van een sociaal-geneeskundig onderzoek bij 10000 schoolkinderen in de provincie Groningen. Proefschrift RU Groningen. met stellingen.

Philip Yam (Ed.) (1998). Exploring intelligence. A search in the human, animal, machine and extraterrestrial domains. Scientific American, vol 9, issue #4.

Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, Daniel A. Briley, Laura E. Engelhardt, Frank D. Mann, and K. Paige Harden (2016). Genetically-Mediated Associations between Measures of Childhood Character and Academic Achievement J Pers Soc Psychol. 2016 Nov; 111(5): 790–815 author manuscript

Rimfeld, K., Kovas, Y., Dale, P. S., & Plomin, R. (2016). True grit and genetics: Predicting academic achievement from personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(5), 780-789. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000089 open

Irving I. Gottesman & James Shields (1972). Schizophrenia and genetics. A twin study vantage point.Academic Press. lccc 727684 [niet in UBL]

Hans J. Eysenck (1990). Rebel with a cause. The autobiography. W. H. Allen. isbn 1852271620

Robert B. Cairns (1993). Belated but bedazzling: Timing and genetic influence in social development. Ch. 4 in Gerald Turkewitz & Darlynne A. Devenny (Eds.) (1993). Developmental time and timing (61-84). LEA. 0805808515 abstract and books.google. Also book preview

Richard M. Lerner, Daniel F. Perkins & Lauren P. Jacobson (1993). Timing, process, and the diversity of developmental trajectories in human life: A developmental contextual perspective. Ch. 3 in Gerald Turkewitz & Darlynne A. Devenny (Eds.) (1993). Developmental time and timing (41-60). LEA. 0805808515 abstract. Also book preview

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for height and body mass index in ~700,000 individuals of European ancestry. Loic Yengo, Julia Sidorenko, Kathryn E Kemper, Zhili Zheng, Andrew R Wood, Michael N Weedon, Timothy M Frayling, Joel Hirschhorn, Jian Yang, Peter M Visscher, GIANT Consortium doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/274654abstract & pdf download.

Simon Kemp (1990). Medieval psychology. Greenwood Press. isbn 0313267340

Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (2018). The nature of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. info


  1. Intelligence as Potentiality and Actuality pp 1-14 By Phillip L. Ackerman https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.002 This is a key publication connecting IQ and expertise of adults and adolescents. Yes! It is pretty ridiculous to test adults on IQ without considering their expertise in law, music, carpentry, whatever. Ackerman does not discuss its implications for claims of high heritabilities of IQ for adult, however. .
    Ever since Binet and Simon published the rst modern scales to measure child intelligence, the fundamental purpose of intelligence assessment has been for prediction ( .. ) Once one understands this fundamental issue in the study of intelligence, several key concepts must be considered, as follows:
    • First, intelligence is, more or less, contextually (and culturally) bounded. ( .. )
    • Second, intelligence is a 'relative' or normative construct. ( .. )
    • Third, intelligence is dynamic. ( .. )
    • Fourth ( .. ) one can make a critical distinction between intellience potentiality and intelligence actuality.
    For a conceptual discussion of investment and intellectual development, see Cattell (1971)
    understanding of adult intelligence is woefully incomplete. Assessments that give credit to adults for the wide variety of knowledge and skills that they possess have yet to be developed. A high proportion of an adult's day-to-day intellectual life is simply unaccounted for by modern IQ assessments.
  2. Hereditary Ability: g Is Driven by Experience-Producing Drives pp 15-29 By Thomas J. Bouchard https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.003. Criticisms of Gould's Mismeasure of man. My problem with this chapter: it sums up some literature (useful, of course), it is weak in explaining issues and relations. The key message of Bouchard seems to be: "“the genome impresses itself on the psyche largely by influencing the character, selection, and impact of experience during development” (Bouchard et al., 1990a. p. 228)." Dynamic interaction. I will have to return to the chapter text on that interaction theme.
    I have always thought it was amazing that while psychologists and others heavily emphasize the role of family environment, thus the emphasis on socioeconomic status (SES), in the shaping of intelligence in children, they conducted almost no studies of unrelated individuals reared together (URT). The URT design is the most powerful one to assess this source of in uence. As Figure 2.1 shows, this design suggests a value near zero in adulthood for shared environment (see the asterisks in Figure 2.1), a value below that suggested by twin designs, namely, about 10%. My view is that psychologists have been plagued by confirmation bias and highly resistant to strong inference and refutation of their theories (Bouchard, 2009). The influence of genes on IQ and SES was laid out for us a great many years ago by a brilliant and highly underappreciated psychologist, namely Barbara Burks (Burks, 1938; King, Montanez-Raminez, & Wertheimer, 1996). [Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2009). Strong inference: A strategy for advancing psychological science. In K. McCartney & R. Weinberg (Eds.), Experience and development: A festschrift in honor of Sandra Wood Scarr (pp. 39–59). London: Taylor and Francis. researchgate.net. Burks, B. S. (1938). On the relative contributions of nature and nurture to average group differences in intelligence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 24, 276–282. open. King, D. B., Montanez-Raminez, L. M., & Wertheimer, M. (1996). Barbara Stoddard Burks: Pioneer behavioral geneticist and humanitarian. In G. A. Kimble, C. A. Boneay, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology; Volume II (pp. 213–225). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. {eBook in Dutch Royal Library}]
    Galton, in his book Hereditary Genius (1869/1914), formulated the idea that individuals differ from one another in mental ability and noted that the range of differences was quite wide, had consequences for everyday life, and, like all the features of the organic world, was influenced by inheritance or what today we call genetics.
    (note 1) The book was originally published in 1869. In the 1892 edition Galton admit- ted that the title was misleading, that it had little to do with genius, and that it should have been titled Hereditary Ability (Galton, 1892/1962, p. 26). As Darwin noted in the quote that follows, the idea of “intellect,” a xed characteristic or a trait in which individuals did not di er, has a very long history.
  3. Culture, Sex, and Intelligence pp 30-48 Stephen J. Ceci, Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, Wendy M. Williams https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.004.
    In this chapter we focus on findings from our research on sex differences in academic achievement and what they say about the role of culture in shaping mathematical and spatial cognition. Our research focuses on the policy and educational implications of spatial and mathematical ability that are correlated with psychometric data (e.g., SAT, GRE, NAEP) and raises questions about the nature and development of these differences and what role policy has in ameliorating them.
  4. The Nature of the General Factor of Intelligence pp 49-63 Andrew R. A. Conway, Kristof Kovacs https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.005
    In the current chapter, we present an overview of our program of research on the relationship between working memory, executive attention, and intelligence. This line of work has culminated in a new theory of the positive manifold of intelligence and a corresponding new model of the general factor, g. We refer to this new framework as process overlap theory (POT) (Kovacs & Conway, 2016b).
  5. Intelligence in Edinburgh, Scotland: Bringing Intelligence to Life pp 64-84 Ian J. Deary, Stuart J. Ritchie https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.006 #key
    • Bringing the Scottish Mental Surveys’ Intelligence Data to Life
    • Intelligence and the Length of Life
    • The Lifetime Stability of Intelligence Differences
    • What Affects Lifetime Changes in Intelligence Differences?
    • The Heritability of Intelligence
    • Structural Brain Imaging Correlates of Intelligence
    • Sex Differences, Getting on in Life, and Estimating Premorbid Intelligence
    • More Intelligence Research with Good Epidemiological Samples - Educational and Social Policy Matters in Intelligence - Questions for Future Research
  6. Intelligence as Domain-Specific Superior Reproducible Performance pp 85-100 K. Anders Ericsson sci-hub.tw/10.1017/9781316817049.007
    I will then describe the work on the expert-performance approach and new insights into the structure of acquired expert performance and, in par- ticular, I will review how the correlation between basic cognitive abilities, such as IQ, and performance differs for beginners’ and skilled individuals’ performance in different domains.
  7. Intelligence, Society, and Human Autonomy pp 101-115 James R. Flynn https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.008
    As recently as 10 years ago, a steel chain of ideas dominated the minds of those who studied and measured intelligence. Much of my own contribu- tion has been to break its links and therefore I must describe them in some detail. Arthur Jensen was its best advocate. The enemies of truth tried to silence Jensen. Science progresses not by labeling some ideas as too wicked to be true, but by debating their truth.

    The Steel Chain of Ideas

    Jensen believed that intelligence is something that transcends culture, social history, and even species; a name for certain traits of a properly developed brain that allow us to solve the wide variety of cognitive prob- lems presented in everyday life. He based his beliefs on four pillars: factor analysis, kinship studies, the dominance of g (the general intelligence fac- tor), and the method of correlated vectors.

  8. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences pp 116-129 Howard Gardner, Mindy Kornhaber, Jie-Qi Chen https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.009
  9. g Theory pp 130-151 Linda S. Gottfredson sci-hub.tw/10.1017/9781316817049.010 #key
    Where psychologists saw individual differences, sociologists saw social inequality. Where psychologists suspected genetic influences on cognitive competence, influential figures in sociology alleged an elite perpetuating itself under the guise of intellectual merit. Career-development psychologists asked how young people choose among different occupations; status-attainment researchers asked what bars the less privileged from entering the most desirable ones. Both theories of occupational attainment pointed to factors the other ignored. One classified occupations horizontally, by field of work; the other ordered them vertically, by prestige. One looked at the nature of work performed and interests rewarded in different occupations; the other only at the socioeconomic benefits flowing to workers in them. Both approaches had venerable histories and vast bodies of evidence, yet contradicted the other’s most fundamental assumptions and conclusions.
  10. Puzzled Intelligence pp 152-166 By Elena L. Grigorenko https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.011 sci-hub.tw.10.1017/9781316817049.011
    This chapter attempts to juxtapose the field of intelligence with the bourgeoning field of epigenetics
  11. A View from the Brain pp 167-182 Richard J. Haier https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.012
  12. Is Critical Thinking a Better Model of Intelligence? pp 183-196 Diane F. Halpern, Heather A. Butler https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.013
  13. Many Pathways, One Destination pp 197-214 Alan S. Kaufman https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.014
  14. My Quest to Understand Human Intelligence pp 215-229 Scott Barry Kaufman https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.015
  15. Individual Differences at the Top pp 230-255 By David Lubinski https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.016
  16. The Intelligence of Nations pp 256-269 Richard Lynn https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.017
  17. Intelligences about Things and Intelligences about People pp 270-286 John D. Mayer https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.018
  18. Mechanisms of Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence and Their Common Dependence on Executive Attention pp 287-307 Zach Shipstead, Randall W. Engle https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.019
  19. Successful Intelligence in Theory, Research, and Practice pp 308-322 Robert J. Sternberg https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.020 [Sternberg on Sternberg, superfluous]

Arthur R. Jensen (1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Praeger. pdf

Horatio H. Newman, Frank N. Freeman & Karl J. Holzinger (1937/1968 4e druk). Twins: a study of heredity and environment. University of Chicago Press. LC Card 37-11639 archive.org

#reference #twins #heritability #interaction #nature #nurture

Stephen J. Ceci & Helene A. Hembrooke (1994). A bioecological model of intellectual development. Ch 9 in Phyllis Moen, Glen H. Elder Jr., & Kurt Lüscher (Eds) (1995). Examining lives in context. Perspectives on the ecology of human development. (303-345) American Psychological Association. isbn 1557982937

Ph. M. van der Heijden (1953). Begaafdheid en beroep. Groningen: Wolters.

Edwin G. Boring (1929/1957). A history of experimental psychology. Appleton-Century Crofts. isbn 0390109886,

Richard J. Herrnstein & Edwin G. Boring (Eds.) (1965). A source book in the history of psychology. Harvard University Press. lccc 65-11595 info

Arthur R. Jensen (1973). Educability & group differences. Harper & Row. isbn 0060121947 — 407 pp. cloth, dust jacket, insides clean and tight, fine, heritability.htmo-->pdf

Arthur R. Jensen (1972). Genetics & Education. Methuen. isbn 0416602703


W. D. Hill, R. E. Marioni, O. Maghzian, S. J. Ritchie, S. P. Hagenaars, A. M. McIntosh, C. R. Gale, G. Davies & I. J. Deary (2018). A combined analysis of genetically correlated traits identifies 187 loci and a role for neurogenesis and myelination in intelligence. Molecular Psychiatry doi:10.1038/s41380-017-0001-5 open

Susan Goldberg, Editor in Chief  (2018). For Decades, Our Coverage Was Racist. To Rise Above Our Past, We Must Acknowledge It. National Geographic article

The Nature of Nurture: Using a Virtual-Parent Design to Test Parenting Effects on Children's Educational Attainment in Genotyped Families. Timothy C. Bates, Brion S. Maher, Sarah E. Medland, Kerrie McAloney (2018). https://doi.org/10.1017/thg.2018.11Published online: 13 March 2018 abstract https://twitter.com/timothycbates/status/973837498597113856

Warne, R. T., Astle, M. C., & Hill, J. C. (2018). What do undergraduates learn about human intelligence? An analysis of introductory psychology textbooks. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(1), 32-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000038 open

J. M. Tanner (1962). Growth at adolescence. With a general consideration of the effects of hereditary and environmental factors upon growth and maturation from birth to maturity. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications info

Robert Plomin, Heather M. Chipuer & John C. Loehlin: Behavioral genetics and personality, pp 225-243 in Lawrence A. Pervin (Ed.) (1990 1st). Handbook of personality theory and research. The Guildford Press. isbn 0898624304

Michael Schiff and Richard Lewontin (1986). Education and class. The irrelevance of IQ. Genetic studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. isbn 0198575998

Mind, Brain, and Education in Socioeconomic Context Martha J. Farah (2009?). chapter proof

Zena Stein, Mervyn Susser, Gerhart Saenger & Francis Marolla (1975). Famine and human development. The Dutch hunger winter of 1944-1945. Oxford University Press. isbn 0192690035 reviewed

William Stern (1920). Die Intelligenz der Kinder und Jugendlichen und die Methoden ihrer Untersuchung. Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth archive.org

J. D. Kruschwitz, L. Waller, L. S. Daedelow, H. Walter, I. M. Veer (2018). General, crystallized and fluid intelligence are not associated with functional global network efficiency: A replication study with the human connectome project 1200 data set. NeuroImage, 171, 323-331 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.01.018 abstract

Steven Pinker (2014). 2014 : What scientific idea is ready for retirement? Behavior = Genes + Environment blog

Steven Pinker (Jan. 7, 2009). My Genome, My Self. The New York Times Magazine blog

Steven Pinker (2016). On New Advances in Behavioral Genetics blog

Steven Pinker (2002). The blank slate. The modern denial of human nature. Allen Lane. isbn 0713992565 info. See also wiki

Is that true (what the title suggests)? I doubt it, therefore I'll have to study the book. Alfred Binet and Edward Thorndike are glaringly absent in the book. Francis Galton and James Flynn only mentioned in passing. The taboo Pinker is attacking is one of the later second half of the twentieth century, the dominant opinion in the first half (e.g. Edward Thorndike) being just the reverse.

Mark H. Johnsson (2011 3rd). Developmental cognitive neuroscience. An introduction. Wiley-Blackwell. 9781444330861 284 pp quarto; in 2015 de 4e editie uitgekomen info

Robert K. Sternberg & Richard K. Wagner (eds) (1994). Mind in context. Interactionist perspectives on human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. info

John C. Loehlin and Robert C. Nichols (1976). Heredity, environment, and personality. A study of 850 sets of twins. info

Sandra Scarr & Louise Carter-Saltzman: Genetics and intelligence pp 792--896 in Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (1982). Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. isbn 0521296870

key publication Robert B. Johnson (1989). The Burt affair. Routledge. isbn 041501039X

Sandra Scarr (1996). How people make their own environments: Implications for parents and policy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2, 204-228. abstract

Key publication on environmental dynamics, a rather extreme position though.

Sandra Scarr & Kathleen McCartney (1983). How People Make Their Own Environments: A Theory of Genotype → Environment Effects. Child Development, 54, 424-435. read online free

Sohan Modgil & Celia Modgil (Eds.) (1987). Arthur Jensen; consensus and controversy. Lewes, East Sussex: Falmer. isbn 185000093X See fair_schooling/beh_genetics.htm#Modgil_Modgil

L. L. Cavalli-Sforza & W. F. Bodmer (1971). The genetics of human populations. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. isbn 0716706814

R. C. Lewontin (1974). The genetic basis of evolutionary change. Columbia University Press. Ch 1 scan & Ch 2 scan & archive.org borrow. See also R. C. Lewontin (1991). Twenty-Five YearsAgo in GENETICS: Electrophoresis in the Development of Evolutionary Genetics: Milestone or Millstone? pdf

Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature is a 1984 book by the evolutionary geneticist Richard Lewontin, the neurobiologist Steven Rose, and the psychologist Leon Kamin, in which the authors criticize sociobiology and genetic determinism and advocate a socialist society.” wikipedia.

Stephen M. Stigler (1989). Francis Galton's Account of the Invention of Correlation. Statistical Science, 4 #2, 73-79. open access

Correlation is a concept that is eminently useful yet entails loads of misunderstandings, especially so in issues of heritability. Therefore it might be important to be clear about the roots of the concept.

Emily Smith-Woolley, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, Saskia Selzam, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Sophie von Stumm, Kathryn Asbury, Philip S. Dale, Toby Young, Rebecca Allen, Yulia Kovas & Robert Plomin (2018). Differences in exam performance between pupils attending selective and non-selective schools mirror the genetic differences between them. npj|Science of Learning nature.com Nature Partner Journals open access

Steven Pinker on New Advances in Behavioral Genetics (2016). The findings of behavioral genetics have turned out to be substantial and robust, and new studies are linking genes with behavioral traits like IQ blog

A. Beaujean (2015). John Carroll’s Views on Intelligence: Bi-Factor vs. Higher-Order Models. Journal of Intelligence. open

Luca Rinaldi, Annette Karmiloff-Smith (2015). Intelligence as a Developing Function: A Neuroconstructivist Approach. Journal of Intelligence , Volume 5; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020018 open

Enhancing Intelligence: From the Group to the Individual. Roberto Colom, Francisco Román (2018). Journal of Intelligence , Volume 6; doi:10.3390/jintelligence6010011 open

VU (27-3-2018). Afstelling van genen verschilt tussen hoger- en lager opgeleide Nederlanders. persbericht

Nou ja, dat is wel erg kort door de bocht. De resultaten zijn gepubliceerd in NPJ Science of Learning. Van Dongen and others 2018.

Jenny van Dongen en vele anderen (2018). DNA methylation signatures of educational attainment. nature.com npj science of learning open and behind the paper

Christopher F. Chabris, Benjamin M. Hebert, Daniel J. Benjamin, Jonathan P. Beauchamp, David Cesarini, Matthijs J.H.M. van der Loos, Magnus Johannesson, Patrik K.E. Magnusson, Paul Lichtenstein, Craig S. Atwood, Jeremy Freese, Taissa S. Hauser, Robert M. Hauser, Nicholas A. Christakis and David Laibson (2012). Most Reported Genetic Associations with General Intelligence Are Probably False Positives. Psychol Sci. 2012 Nov 1; 23(11): 1314–1323. open

Carl Zimmer, May 22, 2017. In ‘Enormous Success,’ Scientists Tie 52 Genes to Human Intelligence. The New York Times online

Why do children read more? The influence of reading ability on voluntary reading practices Elsje van Bergen Margaret J. Snowling Eveline L. de Zeeuw Catharina E.M. van Beijsterveldt Conor V. Dolan Dorret I. Boomsmaopen

Suzanne C. Swagerman, Elsje van Bergen, Conor Dolan, Eco J. C. de Geus, Marinka M. G. Koenis, Hilleke E. Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I. Boomsma (2017). Genetic transmission of reading ability. Brain and Language, 172, September, 3-8 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2015.07.008 abstract

Paige Harden April 13, 2018 Genetic Test Scores Predicting Intelligence Are Not the New Eugenics blog

Hill, W. D. et al. A combined analysis of genetically correlated traits identifies 187 loci and a role for neurogenesis and myelination in intelligence. Molecular Psychiatry 1 (2018)

Genomic SEM Provides Insights into the Multivariate Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits. Andrew D Grotzinger, Mijke Rhemtulla, Ronald de Vlaming, Stuart J. Ritchie, Travis T. Mallard, W. David Hill, Hill F. Ip, Andrew M. McIntosh, Ian J. Deary, Philipp D. Koellinger, K. Paige Harden, Michel G. Nivard, Elliot M. Tucker-Drob (2018). doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/305029 This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed open

Toby Young (April 23, 2018). The left is heading for a reckoning with the new genetics. The Spectator blog

Kevin Mitchell (May 2, 2018). Why genetic IQ differences between 'races' are unlikely. the Guardian article

Pieter J. van Strien (2003). De opvoedbaarheid van de intelligentie. Een oud strijdpunt tussen pedagogen en psychologen. Pedagogiek, 23122-136. pdf

Key publication. Abstract in English, article in Dutch.

Fatos Selita & Yulia Kovas (2018). Genes and Gini: What inequality means for heritability. Journal of Biosocial Science open

M. Bartels, J. H. Rietveld, G. C. M. van Baal et al. (2002). Heritability of educational achievement in 12-year-olds and the overlap with cognitive ability. , 544-553. open

Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function,. Gail Davies, Max Lam, […] Ian J. Deary Nature Communications volume , Article number: 2098 (2018) open

Gry Oftedal (2005). Heritability and genetic causation. Philosophy of Science, 72, 699-709. pdf

Key publication.

R. C. Lewontin (1974). The Analysis of Variance and the Analysis of Causes. Am JHum Genet 26, 400-411.

Key publication. See also Oftedal_2005

Unraveling the Genetic and Environmental Relationship Between Well-Being and Depressive Symptoms Throughout the Lifespan. Bart M. L. Baselmans, Yayouk E. Willems, C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt, Lannie Ligthart, Gonneke Willemsen, Conor V. Dolan, Dorret I. Boomsma and Meike Bartels (2018). Frontiers in Psychiatry doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00261 open

Robert Plomin & C. S. Bergeman (1991). The nature of nurture: Genetic influence on 'environmental' measures. Behavioral and brain sciences, 14, 373-427. preview

John J. McArdle , Carol A. Prescott , Fumiaki Hamagami & John L. Horn (1998). A contemporary method for developmental‐genetic analyses of age changes in intellectual abilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 14 69-114 https://doi.org/10.1080/87565649809540701 [nog niet gezien] paywalled, references

Anne Anastasi (1971). More on heritability: Addendum to the Hebb and Jensen interchange. American psychologist, 26, 1036-7. pdf [Jensen replied in 1972, below]

Arthur Jensen (1972). Interpretation of heritability. American Psychologist 973-5. pdf [with rejoinder by Anne Anastasi]

Genetic analysis of social-class mobility in five longitudinal studies. Daniel W. Belsky, Benjamin W. Domingue, Robbee Wedow, Louise Arseneault, Jason D. Boardman, Avshalom Caspi, Dalton Conley, Jason M. Fletcher, Jeremy Freese, Pamela Herd, Terrie E. Moffitt, Richie Poulton, Kamil Sicinski, Jasmin Wertz, and Kathleen Mullan Harris (2018). PNAS open

Toby Youg (July 9, 2018). The left is heading for a reckoning with the new genetics. Spectator blog

W. David Hill, Sarah, E. Harris, Ian J. Deary (2018). What genome-wide association studies reveal about the association between intelligence and mental health. prepublication

Out today in @NatureGenet: our paper on RDR, a novel method for estimating heritability without environment bias (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41588-018-0178-9 …). I wrote an accessible blog post explaining the paper and its implications (https://geneticvariance.wordpress.com/2018/08/13/relatedness-disequilibrium-regression-explained/ …) #geneticstweet

Alexander Young (2018). Relatedness disequilibrium regression explained. blog

How scientists are trying to predict your future with your genes. But what are the limits? Genome-wide association studies, explained. By Brian Resnick @B_resnick brian@vox.com Aug 23, 2018, 9:10am EDT blog

Theodosius Dobzhansky (1973). Genetic diversity & human equality. Basic Books. isbn 0465026710

Richard J. Herrnstein & Charles Murray (1994). The Bell curve. Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: The Free Press. isbn 0029146739


  • [een scan van het hele boek: https://lesacreduprintemps19.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/the-bell-curve.pdf ]
  • Here are six conclusions regarding tests of cognitive ability, drawn from the classical tradition, that are by now beyond significant technical dispute:
    1. There is such a thing as a general factor of cognitive ability on which human beings differ.
    2. All standardized tests of academic aptitude or achievement measure this general factor to some degree, but IQ tests expressly designed for that purpose measure it most accurately.
    3. IQ scores match, to a first degree, whatever it is that people mean when they use the word intelligent or smart in ordinary language.
    4. IQ scores are stable, although not perfectly so, over much of a person’s life.
    5. Properly administered IQ tests are not demonstrably biased against social, economic, ethnic, or racial groups.
    6. Cognitive ability is substantially heritable, apparently no less than 40 percent and no more than 80 percent.

    The bell curve, p. 22-23

  • The six points illustrate the mainstream position of especially American psychologists studying differences in intelligence. It is by no means the case, as H&M claim, that there is no technical dispute. The dispute was already going on at the turn of the 20th century, and many of the arguments are still valid today. Developments in recent years (after 1994) add new arguments: the Flynn effect, the network approach (Van der Maas and others), research on experts (Ericsson and others). Remark that nowhere do H&M refer to cognitive science: their treatment of intelligence is in terms of individual differences as measured by tests of cognitive ability in the (school) population. This individual differences frame is contingent on our (school) culture. In the field of education, contemporary folk conceptions of intelligence are derived from the psychologi cal dogmatism of, e.g., Edward Thorndike: intelligence does exist, it is a stable characteristic of the individual, therefore it must be genetic in origin.

    @ 1: Yes, there is a positive manifold of cognitive abilities.

    @ 2. Yes. I’d rather not call tests ‘measurements of this general factor’, though. @ 3. Yes. And that is a serious problem because what is reflected in ordinary language is folk psychology. Scientific psychology surely should not be folk psychology clad as pseudoscientific psychology. @ 4. This simply is not true. Education will make a difference. Environments make for differences, therefore changes in the environment will effect IQ scores. @ 5. IQ tests not biased? Come on. The APA Standards warn for bias! @ 6: The main question: small genetic differences get amplified in environmental dynamics. Heritability coefficients should not include those dynamics.

    Arthur I. Gates (1921). The Inheritance of Mental Traits. Psychological Bulletin 358-365 whole volume archive.org

    Ben Williamson (Sept 2, 2018). Postgenomic science, big data, and biosocial education. on_education Journal for Research and Debate.open

    Cravens, H. (1992). A scientific project locked in time: The Terman Genetic Studies of Genius, 1920s–1950s. American Psychologist, 47(2), 183-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.2.183 abstract

    David Burbridge (2001). Francis Galton on twins, heredity and social class. The British Journal for the History of Science, 34, 323-340. abstract

    Robert Plomin and Frank M. Spinath (2004). Intelligence: Genetics, Genes, and Genomics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 112–129. pdf

    Kate E. Lynch (2016). Heritability and causal reasoning. Biology & Philosophy, 32, 25-49. abstract appendix references

    & pdf

    L. J. Eaves, K. Last, N. G. Martin & J. L. Jinks (1977). A progressive approach to non-additivity and genotype-environmental covariance in the analysis of human differences. The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1977.tb00722.x abstract & citing literature #127

    Kaili Rimfeld and Margherita Malanchini (7 September 2018). How much is academic achievement shaped by genes? BBC Future. blog

    Yulia Kovas, Ivan Voronin, Andrey Kaydalov, ...and others (Plomin) (2013). Literacy and Numeracy Are More Heritable Than Intelligence in Primary School. Psychological Science open

    Lots of assumptions. #twins

    Robert Plomin, Heather M. Chipuer & John C. Loehlin: Behavior genetics and personality 225-243 in Lawrence A. Pervin (Ed.) (1990 1st). Handbook of personality theory and research. The Guildford Press. isbn 0898624304 introduction, 3rd edition

    Kathryn Asbury (Sept 7, 2018). The genetic baseline: how a DNA score may soon determine how children are taught in school. Tes [not online]

    Maxwell L Elliott and many others (2018). A Polygenic Score for Higher Educational Attainment is Associated with Larger Brains. Cerebral Cortex open

    Allegrini, A.G., Selzam, S., Rimfeld, K., von Stumm, S., Pingault, J.B., Plomin, R. (2018 preprint). Genomic prediction of cognitive traits in childhood and adolescence preprint Sept 2018 & abstract of publication

    Judith R. Harris (1998). The nurture assumption. Why children turn out the way they do. Parents matter less than you think and peers matter more. New York: Free Press.

    Eric M. Gander (2003). On our minds. How evolutionary psychology is reshaping the nature-vesus-nurture debate. Johns Hopkins UP. [UB Leiden Psycho C14.-25] info