Fair schooling

Ben Wilbrink

For literature in Dutch see another file eerlijk_onderwijs.htm

Relevant literature on genetics and educaton will be brought together in heritability.htm

An article on fair schooling, in Dutch, has appeared in the september 2018 special issue on equal opportunity of the educational journal Van Twaalf tot Achttien [not online], as well as on the Journal's website here .

Fair schooling is a very broad theme. My contributions (blogs) will be somewhat limited according to my own rather unique profile of expertise covering education research, differential and cognitive psychology, history of education, especially the links between these fields. Limited, yes, but I hope the strong point will be exploration of the many connections between these disparate fields. Be prepared for lots of surprises (I hope). Take-off blog here.

Subjects: talent and intelligence nature/nurture; fair instructional theory; fair schooling; fair equal opportunity; (+ historical lines)

Early kick off on Twitter: Twitter thread, also available as Twitter Moment here.

Hypothesis 1 robust instructional methods are possible / do exist / have been used - and researched. E.g., Hin-Tai’s instruction? Think so.

Hypothesis 2 Differences in talents/intelligence, having been acquired (mainly nurture), need not impact the effectiveness of robust instruction.

Hypothesis 3 Differences in talents/intelligence are mainly environmentally acquired, notwithstanding claims of psychologists (e.g., Jensen) and geneticists (e.g. Plomin).

Hypothesis 4 The main function of schooling is the teaching of biologically secondary (Geary) knowledge. (Other functions are derived).

Hypothesis 5 Schooling also impacts on growth in intelligence (witness the Flynn effect; summer lapse with low SES pupils; WOII Dutch kids).

Hypothesis 6 Instruction need not, & therefore should not, be contingent on differences in IQ. Mastery of curricular content is what counts.

Hypothesis 7 It is possible for robust instruction to result in appr. the same high levels of mastery for ALL pupils.

Hypothesis 8 Unequal pupil backgrounds/personalities will ultimately result in achievement differences (e.g. summer losses not compensated).

Hypothesis 9 Robust education will beat conventional and progressivist education in terms of, at least, cognitive achievements for all pupils.

Hypothesis 10 The idea of talent or intelligence being inborn is inherited from the 19th century

Hypothesis 11 More often than not, equal opportunity is considered conditional on talent or intelligence, both taken as inborn characteristics.

Hypothesis 12 Because of what is stated in Hypothesis 11, equal opportunity protagonists typically organize education in ways that tend to preserve class differences. Kind of a contradiction in terms.

fair, the concept

Ingrid Robeyns (2016). The capability approach. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy webpage

#key #fair #justice

Robeyns, I. (2006) Three models of education: Rights, Capabilities and Human Capital. Theory and Research in Education, 4 (1), 69-84. abstract doi.org/10.1177/1477878506060683 & final version

#key #fair #justice

Martha C. Nussbaum (2011). Creating capabilities. The human development approach. Belknap Press/Harvard University Press. isbn 9780674050549 info

Education is not a special topic, it has not been mentioned in the index. The 'ten central capabilities' are capabilities of adults only.

Why ‘fair’, not ‘equal’? In the real world there are no equalities. People and their circumstances are unequal; a just society treats people fairly according to their differences / different circumstances.

The idea behind my push for usage of fair chances in education, instead of equal chances: (1) ‘equal’ gives a false impression of simplicity, (2) ‘fair’ forces one to explicate what might be fair in particular circumstances for particular pupils.

François Dubet &Marie Duru-Bellat (2007). What Makes for Fair Schooling? In Richard Teese, Stephen Lamb & Marie Duru-Bellat, (Eds.) International Studies in Educational Inequality, Theory and Policy, 941-957 Springer preview & references paywalled [no access; not in UB Leiden; not in KB]

Hin-Tai (July 29, 2017). Is this the best we can do? Part 7: the spacing effect blog

Must read.

Emma Smith & Stephen Gorard (2006). Pupils' views on equity in schools. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 36 abstract paywalled

Interesting materials. It is the only publication on the subject I know of. The comparative aspect: pupils in UK, as well as in Italy, Spain, Frnce and Belgium.


literature, annotations

Jacky Lumby & Marianne Coleman (2016). Leading for Equality. Making Schools Fairer. Sage.[eBook in KB] info & preview

Madeline Crosswaite and Kathryn Asbury (2018). Teacher beliefs about the aetiology of individual differences in cognitive ability, and the relevance of behavioural genetics to education. British Journal of Educational Psychology abstract and pdf

Amartya Sen (2003). Development as capability expansion. In Fukuda-Parr S, et al: Readings in Human Development. pdf

Michael Young (1958). The rise of the meritocracy 1870 - 2033. An essay on education and equality. Thames and Hudson.

Heather Boushey, J. Bradford Delong & Marshall Steinbaum (Eds.). After Piketty. The agenda for economics and inequality. Harvard UP. isbn 9780674504776 info & blog

Branco Malovic (2017). Wereldwijde ongelijkheid. Welvaart in de 21e eeuw. Spectrum. 9789000355389 [Global inequality, 2016] info & related links

Ida Gran Andersen & Simon Calmar Andersen (2015). Student-centered instruction and academic achievement: linking mechanisms of educational inequality to schools' instructional strategy British Journal of Sociology of Education abstract and manuscript pdf and sci-hub

D. S. Wilson, R. A Kauffman Jr & M. S. Purdy (2011) A program for at-risk high school students informed by evolutionary science. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027826. PLoS One free

The Regents Academy, New York.

Amartya Sen (2009). The idea of justice. Allen Lane. isbn 9781846141478 info

Amartya Sen (1999). Development as freedom. Knopf. isbn 0375406190 info

Amartya Sen (Ed.) (1982/1997). Choice, welfare and measurement. Harvard University Press. isbn 0674127781 info

John Rawls (1972). A theory of justice. Clarendon Press. isbn 0198243685 info

Samuel Freeman (Ed.) (1999). John Rawls. Collected papers. Harvard University Press. info

John Rawls (2001) Justice as fairness. A restatement. Belknap Harvard. info

James Coleman (1990). Equality and achievement in education. London: Westview Press. [Reader of Coleman articles and chapters] info review

Barry Garelick (December 5, 2016). How attempts to force equity in math classes can protect kids from learning. blog

David Sloan Wilson (Oct 19, 2016). The Tragedy of the Commons: How Elinor Ostrom Solved One of Life’s Greatest Dilemmas. The design principles for solving the tragedy of the commons can be applied to all groups. blog

Xiang Zhou & Geoffrey T. Wodtke (2018). Income Stratification among Occupational Classes in the United States. Social Forces. doi:10.1093/sf/soy074 url to share this paper: sci-hub.tw/10.1093/sf/soy074 [via Herman van de Werfhorst]

Carina Mood (2017). More than Money: Social Class, Income, and the Intergenerational Persistence of Advantage. Sociological Science, 4, 263-287.. pdf

"I show that parental class matters at a given income and income matters within a given social class, and the net associations are substantial"

Gap in key subject achievement between 15-yr-olds in England one of the "most unequal among developed countries" tweet

Michelle Jackson (Ed.) (2013). Determined to Succeed?: Performance versus Choice in Educational Attainment. info [niet in UB Leiden, niet in KB] Niet gezien.

Thijs Bol, Jacqueline Witschge, Herman G. Van de Werfhorst, Jaap Dronkers (2014). Curricular Tracking and Central Examinations: Counterbalancing the Impact of Social Background on Student Achievement in 36 Countries. Social Forces 92(4) 1545-1572, June 2014 Advance Access publication on 1 March 2014 pdf

Correlation, Consumption, Confusion, or Constraints: Why Do Poor Children Perform So Poorly? by Elizabeth M. Caucutt, Lance Lochner and Youngmin Park. Working Paper # 2015-3. Published: The Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Special issue on social mobility. Early view July 2016. pdf

K. Anders Ericsson, Ralf Th. Krampe, and Clemens Tesch-Romer (1993). The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363-406. pdf

James R. Flynn (2007/2009). What Is Intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect. Cambridge University Press. isbn 9780521741477 info

James Flynn (2016). Does your Family Make You Smarter? Nature, Nurture, and Human Autonomy. info.

Belangrijke plaats ingeruimd (zie p. 151-2) voor de intelligentie-theorie van Han van der Maas c.s. 2006. Peter Wilby (27 September 2016) interviews James Flynn blog

Kathryn Asbury & Robert Plomin (2014). G is for Genes: The impact of genetics on education and achievement. Wiley. isbn 9781118482780 info

The authors draw wrong conclusions from heritability coefficients, in my opinion. I will have to analyse the book yet. The authors' opinion is that schooling should reckon with individual differences in intelligence. That is the opposite of what is necessary for schooling to be fair.

Michael Argyle (1994). The psychology of social class. Routledge. 0415079551 info

Francis Galton (1869/1892/1979). Hereditary genius. An inquiry into its laws and consequences. London: Julian Friedman Publishers. isbn 0904014460 2000 digital free access

Richard E. Nisbett (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York, NY: Norton. [UBL PSYCHO C6.-148 ] info

In Ch 7: Perry Preschool & Abecedarian. !!!

W. Howison (1826). The contest of the twelve nations; or, a view of the different bases of human character and talent. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. The book is anonymous., but the author is known to be William Howison. online

Leila Zenderland (1998). Measuring minds. Henry Herbert Goddard and the origins of American intelligence testing. Cambridge University Press. isbn 0521003636

Shelleyann Scott, Charles F. Webber, Judy L. Lupart, Nola Aitken & Donald E. Scott (2013). Fair and equitable assessment practices for all students, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. online first 2013 abstract

Fabian Dietrich, Martin Heinrich & Nina Thieme (Eds.) (2013). Bildungsgerechtigkeit jenseits von Chancengleichheit. Theoretische und empirische Ergänzungen und Alternativen zu 'PISA'. Springer info

Dylan Molenaar & Denny Borsboom (2013) The formalization of fairness: issues in testing for measurement invariance using subtest scores, Educational Research and Evaluation, 19, 223-244. abstract

Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Britte H. Cheng, Liliana Ructtinger, Angela DeBarger, Elizabeth Murray, David Rose, Jenna Gravel, Alexis M. Colker, Daisy Rutstein & Terry Vendlinski (2013). A “conditional” sense of fairness in assessment. Educational Research and Evaluation, 19 121-140. abstract

Alice Bradbury (2013). Understanding Early Years Inequality. Policy, assessment and young children’s identities. Routledge. site Een beperkt aantal bladzijden is daar vrij in te zien. Waarschijnlijk komt het boek als eBook beschikbaar in de KB

Stephen J. Ceci & Paul B. Papierno (2005). The Rhetoric and Reality of Gap Closing. When the 'Have-Nots' Gain but the 'Haves' Gain Even More. American Psychologist, 60, 149-160. pdf

Jeannie Oakes (2005). Keeping track. How schools structure inequality. Yale University Press, second edition 2005 (new preface, extra chapters discussing the 'tracking wars' of the last 20 years) (

#differentiation #equality Read the book critically. E.g., Oakes uncritically praises the research by Jo Boaler in England and California.

William H. Schmidt, Nathan A. Burroughs, Pablo Zoido & Richard T. Houang (2015). The Role of Schooling in Perpetuating Educational Inequality: An International Perspective. Educational Researcher. Open access abstract

Uses PISA: on experienced curriculum at individual level. Quite special. Might show constructivist methods to harm (low SES) groups of students. I have to study this one carefully.

Rebecca Tarlau (2016) If the past devours the future, why study? Piketty, social movements, and future directions for education, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37:6, 861-872, DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2016.1165084 download here

Kathryn Moeller & Rebecca Tarlau (2016) Thomas Piketty's relevance for the study of education: reflections on the political economy of education, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37:6, 805-809, DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2016.1200821 download here

Geraldine J. Clifford (1968/1984 pb). Edward L. Thorndike: The sane positivist. Wesleyan University Press. isbn 0819560928 [out of print] Amazon

The interesting chapter is XIV Individualism, heredity, and determinism (311-333).

About 1900, fierce discussions on nature-nurture questions. Big influencer here: Edward Thorndike en his ideas on the dominance of genetics in differences of intelligence. Intelligence is inborn, that is what psychology and what the public at large will take away from psychology at the turn of the century. Clifford is quite informative, see her pp. 322 ff. With Thorndike, as with other contemporaneous authors, his writing is a game with words. First supposing nurture to be equal, all differences must be due to genetic differences in innate abilities. That is logic, not empirical science. Nevertheles, the ideology here gets clad in the clothes of science, and is still highly influential in the psychological literature as well as in behavior genetics (e.g. Plomin and others). Today’s insight is, ‘yes, there are genetic differences, they get swamped by environmental circumstances, however’ (Nisbett; Ericsson; Flynn & Dickens). Another way to express the same thing: in environmental dynamics small genetic differences might be multiplied/enlarged. The enlargements, however, are environmental, not genetic. See Flynn 2016 on the complexities of that dynamics.

Crucial developments in American psychology about 1900 result in a lock-in of certain ideas on intelligence as a trait, the heritability of differences in that trait, and the stability of those differences (Thorndike, Pearson, Goddard). What is a lock-in? That is, e.g., the particular layout of the QUERTY keyboard. Those century old ideas get reflected in the six bullets of Hernstein & Murray (1994, p.

David C. Geary (1995). Reflections of evolution and culture in children's cognition. Implications for mathematical development and instruction. American Psychologist, 50, 24-36. pdf [Biologically primary and biologically secondary abilities]

André Tricot & John Sweller (2014). Domain-specific knowledge and why teaching generic skills does not work. Educational Psychology Review preview & concept

David Geary (2007). Educating the evolved mind: Conceptual foundations for an evolutionary educational psychology, Ch 1 in Educating the evolved mind: Conceptual foundations for an evolutionary educational psychology, JS Carlson & JR Levin (Eds). Information Age Publishing. [info] Chapter 1 pdf

David C. Geary (2005). The origin of mind. Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

John Sweller (). Story of a research program. Education Review webpage

Stephen J. Ceci (1991). How much does schooling influence general intelligence and its cognitive components? A reassessment of the evidence Developmental Psychology https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.5.703 abstract [paywalled; do not have a copy yet, not via sci-hub?]

Christian N. Brinch & Taryn Ann Galloway (2011). Schooling in adolescence raises IQ scores PNAS pdf

David P. Baker, Daniel Salinas & Paul J. Eslinger (2012). An envisioned bridge: Schooling as a neurocognitive developmental institution. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 2, Supplement 1, 15 February 2012, Pages S6-S17 open access

Camilla Persson Benbow & David Lubinsky (Eds.) (). Intellectual talent. Psychometric and social issues. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pdf book

R. I. Watson (1968/1977). The individual, social, educational, economic and political conditions for the original practices of detection and utilization of individual aptitude differences. Colloques: Textes XIIe Congrès International d’Histoire des Sciences. Paris: Michel, 1968, pp. 355-368. Reprinted in Jozef Brozek & Rand B. Evans (1977). R. I. Watson’s selected papers on the history of psychology (309-324). University of New Hampshire / University Press of New England. 0874511305

‘Individual differences’, as a concept, probably used in psychology in 1885 for the first time. By J. McKeen Cattell, source: R. I. Watson 1968 p. 319, in his ‘The inertia of eye and brain’. Yet, if I remember my Boring well, the idea of individual differences was brought home to psychologists by the problems of the Astronomer Royal: he had relatively long reaction times in time measurements using telescopic observations.

Jozef Brozek & Rand B. Evans (1977). R. I. Watson’s selected papers on the history of psychology (309-324). University of New Hampshire / University Press of New England. 0874511305

Deary, IJ 1996, 'Reductionism and intelligence: The case of inspection time' Journal of Biosocial Science, vol 28, no. 4, pp. 405-423. DOI: 10.1017/S0021932000022501pdf

Wendy Berliner & Deborah Eyre (2017). Great minds and how to grow them. Routledge. 9781138284609 info

Benjamin Alcott (July, 2017). Might progress assessments hinder equitable progress? Evidence from England. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability open access

Looks like a lot of sense as well as nonsense, with little guidance as to what is what. Why did I buy this one?

Nicholas Wright Gillham (2001). Sir Francis Galton. From African exploration to the birth of eugenics. Oxford University Press. isbn 0195143655 info

Written by a geneticist. Impressive. See pp 229-30 on Alfred Binet & Galton.

James R. Newman (1956/1988). The world of mathematics. Tempus. isbn 1556151489

tweeted this one

David Figlio and Krzysztof Karbownik (2017). Some schools much better than others at closing achievement gaps between their advantaged and disadvantaged students. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 2, #19 July 20, 2017. Economic Studies at Brookings. pdf

Rogier A. Kievit, Ulman Lindenberger, Ian M. Goodyer, Peter B. Jones, Peter Fonagy, Edward T. Bullmore, the Neuroscience in Psychiatry Network, and Raymond J. Dolan (2017). Mutualistic Coupling Between Vocabulary and Reasoning Supports Cognitive Development During Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood. Psychological Science open access

Linda S. Gottfredson (1997). Mainstream Science on Intelligence: An Editorial With 52 Signatories, History, and Bibliography. INTELLIGENCE U(I) 13-23 pdf

D. C. Geary, A. Nicholas & J. & Sun (2017). Developmental change in the influence of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge on mathematics achievement: An eight-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(5), 680-693. paywalled manuscript pdf

Elizabeth Dhuey, David Figlio, Krzysztof Karbownik, Jeffrey Roth (2017). School Starting Age and Cognitive Development. NBER Working Paper No. 23660 Issued in August 2017 download

Marlous Tiekstra (2016). Fostering the Learning Potential of At-risk Students in the Classroom: Studies into the Consequential Validity of Dynamic Assessment. Diss. Groningen University. downloads

Toby Young 25 August 2017 Free schools are working - just look at their GCSE results blog

Ian Deary (2000). Looking Down on Human Intelligence: From Psychometrics to the Brain. UBL PSYCHO P4.1.2.-80 not yet borrowed

Dylan Wiliam (2005). Measuring 'Intelligence': what can we learn and how can we move forward? Paper presented at the annual meeting of AERA, Montreal, Canada, April 2005. ETS. pdf

Many good points, and some that are controversial (in my opinion, that is ;-) ) (for example, the next to last sentence of the paper;part of the problem here is that intelligence and school achievement are somewhat the same constructs, already with Binet!).

Jeanne S. Chall (2000). The Academic Achievement Challenge. What Really Works in the Classroom? The Guilford Press. 1572307684 info

Han L. J. van der Maas, Conor V. Dolan, Raoul P. P. P. Grasman, Jelte M. Wicherts, Hilde M. Huizenga, and Maartje E. J. Raijmakers (2006). A Dynamical Model of General Intelligence: The Positive Manifold of Intelligence by Mutualism Psychological Review, 113, 842-861. pdf

James Flynn (1999). Searching for Justice: The Discovery of IQ Gains Over Time American Psychologist researchgate

Toby Young (2015). The Fall of the Meritocracy. Quadrant online free

Mieke van Houtte (2017). Gender Differences in Context: The Impact of Track Position on Study Involvement in Flemish Secondary Education Sociology of Education open access

What is RTI? page

Successful in Quebec: here. Response to Intervention (RTI) is a multi-tier approach to the early identification and support of students with learning and behavior needs.

Getting older quicker. By Dave Thomson Educatio Datalab page

Moth of birth and achievement gaps.

The Question of Knowledge practicalities of a knowledge-based curriculum. Parents + Teachers for Excellence. pdf

Hans Luyten, Christine Merrell & Peter Tymms (2017): The contribution of schooling to learning gains of pupils in Years 1 to 6, School Effectiveness and School Improvement To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2017.1297312 pdf

Eton of the East End: Inspirational free school in one of London's most deprived areas sends 21 star pupils to train as doctors, dentists and vets. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4893462/Free-school-London-sends-pupils-Universities.html#ixzz4w4zGStaH Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook article

Nicholas G. Shakeshaft , Maciej Trzaskowski, Andrew McMillan, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Claire M. A. Haworth, Philip S. Dale, Robert Plomin (2017). Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16. Published: December 11, 2013 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341 open access

Richard E. Nisbett, Joshua Aronson, Clancy Blair, William Dickens, James Flynn, Diane F. Halpern, Eric Turkheimer (2012). Intelligence. New Findings and Theoretical Developments. American Psychologist, 67, 130-159 pdf

Richard E. Nisbett (2013). Schooling makes you smarter. What teachers need to know about IQ. American Educator Spring, 10-39. pdf

Larry Cuban (2017). Scaling Up: The Story of East Side Prep (Part 2) bog

Rianne Kloosterman, Stijn Ruiter, Paul M. De Graaf, Gerbert Kraaykamp (2009). Parental education, children's performance and the transition to higher secondary education: trends in primary and secondary effects over five Dutch school cohorts (1965–99). First published: 20 May 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2009.01235.x [I have no access] abstract

Robert M. Hauser (2009). On "Quality and Equity in the Performance of Students and Schools" pdf

Slava Kalyuga & Anne-Marie Singh (2015). Rethinking the Boundaries of Cognitive Load Theory in Complex Learning Educational Psychology Review, 28, 831-852. abstract

Diane Reay (2017). Miseducation. Inequality, education and the working classes. Policy Press. isbn 9781447330653 info - info

Interesting book. Reay falls for progressivist ideology, however. See p. 179 'austerity education': knwoledge based education is bad, skills-based education is good. or something.

Children as young as two grouped by ability in English nurseries The Guardian article

Gregory Clark (2014). The Son Also Rises : Surnames and the History of Social Mobility. Princeton University Press [eBook KB] [ch 7 Nature versus nurture pdf downloaded] How much of our fate is tied to the status of our parents and grandparents? How much does it influence our children? More than we wish to believe. While it has been argued that rigid class structures have eroded in favor of greater social equality, The Son Also Rises proves that movement on the soci.. wiki

David Didau (Dec 5, 2017). THOUGHT DEPENDS ON KNOWLEDGE blog

The Brain Basis of the Phonological Deficit in Dyslexia is Independent of IQ. Hiroko Tanaka and others (2011). Psychol Sci. 2011 Nov; 22(11): 1442–1451. open access

Keith E. Stanovich (2005). The future of a mistake: Will discrepancy measurement continue to make the learning disabilities field a pseudoscience? Learning Disability Quarterly, 28 103-106. pdf

October 02 2017 Program dramatically improves reading of at-risk students at an early age article

Cathy L. Watkins (1997). Project Follow Through: A Case Study of Contingencies Influencing Instructional Practices of the Educational Establishment. . Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. pdf

Karola Dillenburger (2012). Why reinvent the wheel? A behaviour analyst 's reflections on pedagogy for inclusion for students with intellectual and developmental disability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability 37(2):169-80 DOI10.3109/13668250.2012.685705 concept

FFT TERM OF BIRTH RESEARCH A pupil 's term and month of birth can have a significant effect on their attainment, progress and development. It can also have a major impact on your school 's results. Find out more and download an FFT Term of Birth report for your own school. page

William Dickens (2005). Genetic differences and school readiness. February 2005 The Future of Children 15(1):55-69. researchgate (complete issue)

Arthur R. Jensen (1987). The g Beyond Factor Analysis. In Royce R. Ronning, Jane C. Conoley, John A. Glover, and Joseph C. Witt (Eds.) (1987). The influence of cognitive psychology on testing. Buros-Nebraska Symposium on Measurement and Testing. Volume 3. Erlbaum. isbn 0898598982 open access

John Mighton (2003). The myth of ability. Nurturing mathematical talent in every child. Anansi. isbn 0887846939 info

Niall Bolger, Avshalom Caspi, Geraldine Downey & Martha Moorehause (Eds.): Persons in context. Developmental processes. Cambridge University Press. isbn 052135577x [a.o.: Sandra Scarr (1988). How genotypes and environments combine: development and individual differences. (217-244)]

Charles Murray (2008). Real education. Four Simple Truths for Bringing America 's Schools Back to Reality. Three Rivers Press. pdf

Unfair schooling.

Joanne Brown (1992). The definition of a profession. The authority of metaphor in the history of intelligence testing, 1890-1930. Princeton Universty Press. [als eBook in KB] site

Council for Responsible Genetics: GENETIC DETERMINISM web page

Pierre Bourdieu et Jean-Claude Passeron (1970). La reproduction. éléments pour une théorie du système d'enseignement. Les Éditions de Minuit. La reproduction. éléments pur une théorie dy système d'enseignement. Les éditions Minuit. reviewed 1972

Dylan Wiliam (2017). Learning and assessment: a long and winding road? Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Volume 24, 2017 - Issue 3: Assessment and Learning open access

Cinq idées que défend Stanislas Dehaene, l'éminence grise de Jean-Michel Blanquer 12/01/2018 France Culture web page

D. Esposito (1973). Homogeneous and heterogeneous ability grouping: Principal findings and implications for evaluating and designing more effective educational environments. Review of Educational Research, 43, 163-180.

Linda Jarvin & Robert J. Sternberg (2003). Alfred Binet's contributions as a paradigm for impact in psychology. Chapter 3 in B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.) (2003). Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Erlbaum.google.books [whole book] Also as chapter 5 in Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (2003): The anatomy of impact. What makes the great works of psychology great. American Psychological Association. In the latter book pp 3-19 also: Dean Keith Simonton (2003). Francis Galton's Hereditary genius: its place in the history and psychology of science.

Dirk van Damme (23 januari 2018) tweet Slides of my keynote speech at the European @goal_project Conference, Brussels, 17 January 2018, on educational opportunities throughout the life-course, focusing on skills use and adult learning. slides

OECD Education Working Papers . Academic resilience: What schools and countries do to help disadvantaged students succeed in PISA http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/e22490ac-en read

Jill Barshay (June 27, 2016). Is it better to teach pure math instead of applied math? OECD study of 64 countries and regions finds significant rich-poor divide on math instruction. column

Jorge Luis García, James J. Heckman, Anna L. Ziff (). Gender differences in the benefits of an influential early childhood program. Working Paper 23412 NBER pdf

Perry, Abecedarian etcetera?

Arthur J. Reynolds, Suh-Ruu Ou, Judy A. Temple (2018). A Multicomponent, Preschool to Third Grade Preventive Intervention and Educational Attainment at 35 Years of Age. JAMA Pediatrics, 2018; DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.4673 DOI

Inga Schwabe, Luc Janss and Stéphanie M. van den Berg (2017). Can We Validate the Results of Twin Studies? A Census-Based Study on the Heritability of Educational Achievement. Front. Genet. open access

Draadje Tim van der Zee Twitter

Douglas K.Detterman (2014). Introduction to the intelligence special issue on the development of expertise: is ability necessary? [Special issue on Ericsson's research] Intelligence, 45, July-August 1-5. [whole issue was temporarily open access] abstract

A. H. Halsey (Ed.) (1961). Ability and educational opportunity. OECD.

Dawn Foster (20 Feb 2018). Helping gifted children is all very well - but what about the rest? blog The Guardian

Raymond B. Cattell & H. J. Butcher (1968). The prediction of achievement and creativity. Bobbs-Merrill. lccc 67-18662 [niet in UB Leiden]

  1. The community's task in the fulfillment of the individual
  2. The nature of abilities
    1. Introduction
    2. Techniques for the analysis of abilities
    3. Previous theories of the structure of abilities
    4. Hereditary and cultural determinants of ability
    5. The theory of fluid and crystallized general ability
    6. The relation of crystallized intelligence to general level of attainment
    7. The development of perceptual and culture fair intelligence tests
    8. Some further characteristics of culture fair tests
    9. Indicated reforms in the use of intelligence tests in schools
  3. The relation of abilities to scholastic achievement
  4. Measuring the main dimensions of personality
  5. Concepts and measures of motivation and interest
  6. Principles for evaluating validity and consistenc in psychological tests
  7. Scaling, standardization, and other properties required in psychological tests
  8. The planning and design of a research into the predicton of school achievement
  9. The prediction of school achievement from meausres of ability and the structure of abilities in high school students
  10. The prediction of achievement from personality factors
  11. The observed structure of children's interests
  12. The associations of environmental factors and achievement
    1. The effect of cultural differences on the prediction of achievement
    2. Cross-cultural research on motivation for achievement
    3. Educational achievement in particular racial and regional groups
    4. The correlations of economic level and social class
    5. The correlations of school, neighborhood, facilities, and atmosphere
  13. The predition of achievement in a wider context
    1. Beyond the school: achievement in occupation, family, and society
    2. Time and achievement
    3. Considerations of criterion reliabilities
    4. The dimensions of achievement
    5. The predictive utility of various types of data
  14. Originality and creativity in school and society
    1. Creativity and its role in society
    2. Some previous research on creativity
    3. General associations of creativity and pseudocreativity
    4. The relation of cognitive abilities to creativity
    5. The roots of creativity in personality studied biographically
  15. The prediction, selection, and cultivation of creativity
    1. The general problems in fostering creativity
    2. For what working conditions are we selecting creative individuals?
    3. Defining the creativity criterion
    4. Creativity prediction by psychological tests aimed at a 'creative type'
    5. Creativity prediction by regression on a criterion of effectiveness within a research group
    6. The broader context of the predictive problem
    7. Applications in education
    8. 'Training for creativity'
  16. The organization of practical psychological procedures for predicting achievement, creativity, and adjustment

Raymond B. Cattell (1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. isbn 0395042755 archive.org Arthur Jensen review

  1. The scientific goals of ability study
  2. Principles and methods in investigating general mental capacity
  3. The nature of primary abilities
  4. Principles in Drawing the Map of Abilities
  5. The Discovery of Fluid and Crystalized General Intelligence
  6. Higher-Stratum Ability Structure and the 'Investment Theory' of Intelligence
  7. The Natural History of Ability: Distribution and Relation to Sex and Age
  8. Physiological and Neurological Bases of Intelligence
  9. Ultra-Human Intelligence: Illumination from Evolution of Animals and Machines
  10. The Debate on Heredity and Environment: Abilities in Relation to Race and Culture
  11. The Triadic Theory of Abilities Developmentally Related to Structural Learning Theory
  12. Personality-Ability Interactions and the Prediction of Achievement
  13. Genius and the Processes of Creative Thought
  14. Intelligence and Society

Alfred Binet & Théodore Simon (1916/1973 reprint). The development of intelligence in children. (The Binet-Simon Scale). Translated by Elizabeth S. Kite. Reprint: New York Arno Press. isbn 0405051350 online

A. Pluchino, A. E. Biondo, A. Rapisarda (2018). Talent vs Luck: the role of randomness in success and failure. arXiv:1802.07068v2 [physics.soc-ph] open

Maybe 'talent' can be shown to be distributed randomly (not genetically)? Would be a small sensation.

Drew Bailey, Greg J. Duncan, Tyler Watts, Doug Clement, Julie Sarama (2018). Risky Business: Correlation and Causation in Longitudinal Studies of Skill Development pdf

Robert J. Duncan, Sara A. Schmitt, Maura Burke, Megan M. McClelland (2018). Combining a kindergarten readiness summer program with a self-regulation intervention improves school readiness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly Volume 42, 1st Quarter 2018, Pages 291-300 open

Useful literature.

John Colombo & Jeffrey Fagen (Eds) (1990). Individual differences in infancy: Reliability, stability, prediction. Erlbaum. isbn 0805803696 info

David Henry Feldman (1986). Nature's gambit. Child prodigies and the development of human potential. Harvard University Press. isbn 0465048617 #multiple_intelligences #talent

Mary A. Jensen & Stacie G. Goffin (Eds) (1993). Visions of entitlement. The care and education of America's children. SUNY. isbn 0791416763 info

  1. Entitlement in Early Care and Education: A Tale of Two Rights - Sharon L. Kagan
  2. Children's Welfare Rights Are Entitlements - Colin A. Wring
  3. The Concept of Entitlement and Its Incompatibility with American Legal Culture - Gary B. Melton and Megan Sullivan
  4. Well-Being, Entitlements, and Investment in Children: An Economic Perspective - Robert Haveman and Barbara Wolfe
  5. Children's Rights in a Civilized Society - Stuart N. Hart
  6. Equal Opportunity for Infants and Young Children: Myth or Reality? - Stanley I. Greenspan
  7. The Other Childhood: The Classroom Worlds of Poor Children - Valerie Polakow
  8. Health Care Entitlements for Children: Providing Health Services as if Children Really Mattered - Neal Halfon and Gale Berkowitz
  9. The Dilemma of Rural American Communities and Their Children - Gordon Hoke
  10. Creating a Political Climate that Values and Supports Children - Cheryl D. Hayes
  11. Supporting Families in Their Creation of Contexts for Child Rearing - Bernice Weissbourd
  12. Building Villages: Lessons from Policy Entrepreneurs - Heather B. Weiss

Sir W. H. Hadow (chair) (1924). Board of Education. Report of the consultative committee on psychological tests of educable capacity and their possible use in the public system of education. London: His Majesty's Stationary Office. paper The Committee's Report pp. 1-145. Appendices 146-238 a.o. by Cyril Burt. full text

Judith Blake (1989). Family size and achievement. University of California Press. isbn 0520062965 free online

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi & Reed Larson (1984). Being adolescent. Conflict and growth in the teenage years. Basic Books. isbn 0465006469

Beeman Phillips (1978). School, stress and anxiety. Theory, research and intervention. New York: Human Sciences Press. isbn 0877053243

Gillian Pugh (ed.) (1992). Contemporary issues in the early years. Working collaboratively for children. London: Paul Chapman / National Children's Bureau. isbn 1853961736

Robert J. Sternberg &John Kolligian, Jr. ((Eds) (1990). Competence considered. Yale University Press. isbn 0300045670

J. McV Hunt (1972). Heredity, Environment, and Class or Ethnic Diferences. pdf of concept/report [published in ETS Invitational Conference 1973]

[mentioned in Husén 1974, zie hierboven, p. 11-12. ] My annotations:

The criterion for what is a good intelligence test (IQ): does it predict school achievement? Just as it was for Binet & Simon, at the beginning of the last century. Therefore: IQ is a school thing. And yes, schooling probably is a necessary condition for the qualities of one's later personal and vocational life. Quite another question is: is IQ predictive of those qualities, given the schooling one has received? If not, then what is the justification to make schooling (amount, quality) dependent on IQ? If some pupils need more time than others to reach sufficient mastery, why should that diminish their chances / rights / desert / merit? What is the merit of IQ? Is there any, except costs of schooling (assuming the costs to be negatively related to IQ)?

Bryan Caplan (2018). The Case against Education: Why the Education System Is a Waste of Time and Money. Princeton UP. isbn 9780691174655   info


Jay P. Greene & Michael Q. McShane (2018). Failure Up Close. What Happens, Why It Happens, and What We Can Learn from It. Rowman & Littlefield. isbn 9781475840551 info

Stephen J. Ceci (Guest Ed.) (1996). IQ in society. Special theme of Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2 contents [No access? Try sci-hub, using the DOI addresses]

tweet [use @threadreaderapp to save the whole thread (might not succeed in all cases, however)]

A. H. Halsey, Jean Floud, and C. Arnold Anderson (Eds.) (1961). Education, economy, and society. A reader in the sociology of education. New York: Free Press. LCCC 61-9167. #reference

B. F. M. Bakker, J. Dronkers en G. W. Meijnen (Eds) (1989). Educational opportunities in the welfare state. Nijmegen: ITS, 1989. isbn 9063706561.

Allan Bloom (1990). Giants and dwarfs. Essays 1960-1990. New York: Simon and Schuster. isbn 0671707779

William B. Schrader (Ed.) (1981). Admissions testing and the public interest. Proceedings of the 1980 ETS Invitational Conference. New Directions for Testing and Measurement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. isbn 875899718

Nathaniel H. Hartshorne (Ed.) (1977). Educational measurement and the law. Proceedings of the 1977 ETS Invitational Conference. Educational testing Service. lccc 47-11220. scan

Patrick Suppes (Ed.). (1978). Impact of Research on Education: Some Case Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Education. No isbn [Een samenvatting van 110 blz is afzonderlijk gepubliceerd]

John B. Carroll (1978). On the theory-practice interface in the measurement of intellectual abilities. pp 1-106 in Patrick Suppes (Ed.). (1978). Impact of Research on Education: Some Case Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Education.

Samuel Messick (1981). Evidence and ethics in the evaluation of tests. open

Arthur R. Jensen (1980). Bias in mental testing. London: Methuen. isbn 041683230X pdf

Lee J. Cronbach (1990). Essentials of psychological testing. Harper and Row. isbn 0060414189

See especially Ch. 9 Influences on intellectual development pp 320-369.

Lee J. Cronbach (1975). Five decades of public controversy over mental testing. American Psychologist, 30, 1-14.

H. Putnam (1973). Reductionism and the nature of psychology. Cognition, 2, 131-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(72)90033-9 preview

Carroll (1978, p. 82-83, see above) quotes a long passage from the section 4. 'Intelligence'.

Wouter Schakel and Armen Hakhverdian (2018). Ideological congruence and socio-economic inequality. European Political Science Review, 10, 441-465 temp. open

Lynn Thorndike (1940). Elementary and Secondary Education in the Middle Ages. Speculum, 15, 400-408. pdf JStor

Jerome Karabel (2005) The chosen. The hidden history of admission and exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Houghton Mifflin Company. isbn 9780618574582 reviewed by Frank Dobbin.

Explicitly unfair admissions (Ivy League) in the US.

William W. Cooley & Paul R. Lohnes (1976). Evaluation Research in Education. Irvington Publishers. isbn 0470013982

A rich book, I must return to it later. Its subject is evaluation on a national scale, and especially its methodological issues (traps and misunderstandings), illustrated by the controversies about, for example, the Coleman Report 1966. Equality is the main theme, in a sense.

F. Allan Hanson (1993). Testing testing. Social consequences of the examined life. Berkeley: University of California Press. isbn 0520080602 open access

Key publication tweet

Denny Borsboom & Lisa D. Wijsen (2017) Psychology’s atomic bomb, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 24:3, 440-446, DOI: 10.1080/0969594X.2017.1333084 pdf

A. H. Halsey, A. F. Heath & J. M. Ridge (1980). Origins and destinations. Family, Class, and Education in Modern Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press. isbn 0198272243

#class #family #pool_of_ability Dated, but probably full of wisdom. The Oxford Social Mobility Project.

OECD (1975). Education, inequality and life chances [2 vols.] [opzoeken]

Herbert H. Hyman, Charles R. Wright and John Shelton Reed (1975). The enduring effects of education. University of Chicago Press. isbn 0226365506

Het bijzondere van dit onderzoek is dat gebruik is gemaakt van nationale steekproeven uit de volwassenenpopulatie. Dat is een idee dat ik ook wel eens heb geopperd, om niet te starten vanaf school en dan in het te volgen cohort veel deelnemers te verliezen, maar vanuit volwassenen en dan terug te vragen. Trouwens: ze vinden positieve resultaten van onderwijs, hoe meer onderwijs, des te meer dat opbrengt. Maar dat was te verwachten, toch?

Derek Fraser (1973/1984 2nd edition). The evolution of the British welfare state. A history of social policy since the industrial revolution. Macmillan. isbn 0333359992

Penelope Weston (Ed.) (1991). Assessment of pupil achievement: motivation and school success. Report of the educational research workshop held in Liège 12-15 september. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger. isbn 9026511477

A Council of Europe research workshop. It is dated, of course, yet the book may elucidate the measure of sensitivity to fairness problems in education / assessment.

John B. Carroll (1993). Human cognitive abilities. Cambridge UP. [UB Leiden PSYCHO C6.1.-102 geleend ] [Zie ook Spearrit 1996] info

Donald Spearrit (1996). Carroll's model of cognitive abilities: Educational implications. International Journal of Educational Research, 25, number 2, 107-198. info

Jeannie Oakes (2005 2nd ed.). Keeping track. How schools structure inequality. Yale University Press. isbn 0300108303 (new preface, extra chapters discussing the 'tracking wars' of the last 20 years) info

John B. Carroll (2005). The Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities. In D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues (pp. 69-76). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press. [UB Leiden PSYCHO P4.1.2.-91 ]

Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, Melissa Osborne Groves (Eds.) (2005). Unequal chances. Family background and economic success. Princeton UP. contents and abstracts - reviewed info & Introduction pdf

Christian Albrekt Larsen (2013). The rise and fall of social cohesion. Oxford UP. [UB Leiden Sociol N11-177] info

Social constructivism, regrettably.

Will Atkinson (2010). Class, individualization and late modernity. In search of the reflexive worker. Palgrave Macmillan. [Sociol N11-173] info

The politics of social psychology. Crawford, Jarret T. editor.; Jussim, Lee J. editor. NewYork : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group 2018 [UB Leiden PSYCHO G1.0.-149 nog lenen] info/contents

G. M. Wilson and Kremer J. Hoke (1920). How to measure. New York: The Macmillan Company. [two fold-out grading scales (spelling, drawing)] full view

Test optimism in 1920, see its preface.

Sjerp Willem van der Ploeg (1992). The expansion of secondary and tertiary education in the Netherlands. Proefschrift. Nijmegen: ITS. isbn 9063708947 open access

Ross D. Boylan (1993). The effect of the number of diplomas on their value. Sociology of Education, 66, 206-221 preview

Jonathan J. B. Mijs & Bowen Paulle (forthcoming 2018). The Burden of Acting Wise: Sanctioned School Success and Ambivalence. about Hard Work at an Elite School in the Netherlands. Intercultural Education, 27. prepubication

Alan Peshkin (2001). Permissible advantage? The moral consequences of elite schooling. Lawrence Erlbaum. isbn 0805824669 info

Robert C. Nichols (1979). Policy implications of the IQ controversy. pp 3-46 in Lee S. Shulman (Ed.) (1979). Review of research in education volume 6 1978. Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock Publishers. isbn 0875812392 preview

Use for references only, after all it is a review of eductional research touching on the theme.

Susanne Rijken (1999). Educational expansion and status attainment. A cross-national and over-time comparison. proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht. isbn 903931800x, 244 blz.-->

Herman G. Van de Werfhorst and Jonathan J.B. Mijs (2010). Achievement Inequality and the Institutional Structure of Educational Systems: A Comparative Perspective. Annu. Rev. Sociol., 36, 407-428. pdf

Key publication for the sociological touch.

Noelle Bisseret (1979). Education, class language and ideology. Routledge & Kegan Paul. isbn 0710001185

Bisseret is psychologist, has been a student of Basil Bernstein. Intriguing content, deserves some study.

Claude Grignon (1971). L'ordre des choses. Les fonctions sociales de l'enseignement technique. Les Éditions de Minuit.

beroepsonderwijs in Frankrijk 60er jaren, door sociologische bril

Roger Price (1987). A social history of nineteenth century France. Hutchinson. isbn0091732018

Quite interesting Chapter 8 'Education' pp 307-356

L. S. Hearnshaw (1964). A short history of British psychology 1840 - 1940. Methuen.

Ed Yong (July 23, 2018). An Enormous Study of the Genes Related to Staying in School. Researchers have found 1,271 gene variants associated with years of formal education. That’s important, but not for the obvious reasons. The Atlantic Science article

I have yet to follow up on this. Others have done so already:

  • Wim Köhler (23 juli 2018). Heel veel genen voor schoolsucces gevonden nrc
    In 2013 vonden ze de eerste drie plaatsen op het DNA die invloed hebben, bij onderzoek onder ruim 100.000 mensen. Dat was het eerste onderzoek, gepubliceerd in Science, waarbij met betrouwbare methoden sociale kenmerken aan erfelijke eigenschappen werden gekoppeld. In 2016 volgde de vondst van 76 DNA-locaties uit de analyse van de erfelijke informatie van 400.000 mensen. Nu is er de uitbreiding naar 1,1 miljoen mensen.
    Onderzoeker Philipp Koellinger, betrokken bij alle drie de scholingsduuronderzoeken, nu verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, zei al in 2013 in NRC Handelsblad over die eerste publicatie van drie genen: „Er zijn geen allesbepalende genen. Genetische selectie, bijvoorbeeld voor een schoolopleiding, kan dus in werkelijkheid niet.”

  • Emma Smith & Stephen Gorard (2006). Pupils' views on equity in schools Compare:A Journal of Comparative and International Education. 36, issue 1. abstract

    Ben Williamson (July, 2018) Genetics, big data science, and postgenomic education research. blog

    Ben Wilbrink (July 27, 2018) The idea of intelligence and the idea of heritability of intelligence are ghosts from the change of the century, the 19th century that is ;-) Education took over their appearances; now we tend to believe the ghosts' story because the data seem to prove it. ‪#selffulfillingproph‬ tweet

    Mainstream Science on Intelligence WikipediA

    VULNERABLE LEARNERS & SOCIAL MOBILITY REPORT. 25th July 2018. Education in England: Annual Report 2018 info

    Renee Ryberg, Shawn Bauldry, Michael A. Schultz, Annekatrin Steinhoff & Michael Shanahan (2017). Personality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: Evidence from Germany Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 2181–2193 abstract

    Wiebke Schulz, Reinhard Schunck, Martin Diewald & Wendy Johnson (2017). Pathways of Intergenerational Transmission of Advantages during Adolescence: Social Background, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 2194–2214 abstract

    David Bornstein (April 18, 2011). A Better Way to Teach Math. Is it possible to eliminate the bell curve in math class? article

    John Mighton & Jump Math

    Richard Hofstadter (1944). Social Darwinism in American thought 1860-1915. Beacon. [UB Leiden SOCIOL E2-64]

    R. J. Montgomery (1965). Examinations, An account of their evolution as administrative devices in England. London: Longmans Green.


    John Roach (1971). Public Examinations in England 1850-1900. Cambridge UP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511896309 [University Library   Leiden Closed Stack 3   1923 E 36] info

    Mary Sturt (1967). The education of the people. A history of primary education in England and Wales in the nineteenth century. Routledge and Kegan Paul. isbn 0710021615 info

    #key publication. #edhistory Nice book, many quotes

    Elliot Eisner (Ed.) (1985). Learning and Teaching. The Ways of Knowing. 84th yearbook NSSE. issn 00775762

    Joseph F. Kett (1994). The Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties. From Self-Improvement to Adult Education in America, 1750-1990. Stanford University Press. isbn 0804722978 info

    Merle Curti (1959). The Social Ideas Of American Educators With New Chapter On The Last Twenty Five Years Pageant Books. archive.org

    Edward L. Thorndike (1940). Human nature and the social order. The Macmillan Company. #eugenics

    Clarence J. Karier (1967/1986). The individual, society, and education. A history of American educational ideas. University of Illinois Press. isbn 0252013093 info

    Thomas Pole (1814, 1816/1969 reprint). A history of the origin and progress of adult schools. Woburn Books/Kelley. archive.org

    Education, the perusal of the sacred Scriptures and other religious books, have a tendency to moralize and christianize the minds of men. Instead of idleness, profaneness, and vice - they inculcate, diligence, sobriety, frugality, piety, and heavenly mindedness.

    Ameneh Shahaeian, Cen Wang, Elliot Tucker-Drob, Vincent Geiger, Adriana G. Bus & Linda J. Harrison (2018). Early Shared Reading, Socioeconomic Status, and Children’s Cognitive and School Competencies: Six Years of Longitudinal Evidence. Scientific Studies of Reading, 22, 485-502. free

    Schooling itself left out of the models!

    Pamela Horn (1989). The Victorian and Edwardian schoolchild. Alan Sutton. isbn 0862995744

    #reference Richly illustrated.

    John Raven (2000). The Raven's Progressive Matrices: Change and Stability over Culture and Time. Cognitive Psychology 41, 1–48. pdf

    Rod Hick and Tania Burchardt (2016). Capability Deprivation. In David Brady and Linda M. Burton (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Poverty Oxford UP. open

    #key publication (key: the capability approch of Amertya Sen (& Martha Nussbum, Ingrid Robeyns e.g.)

    Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (1982). Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. isbn 0521296870 [This is the first and by now very old edition, quite interesting chapters though! New edition: 2000 [UB Leiden PSYCHO P4.2.1.-47 ] info & contents and abstracts and doi]

    Judith Blake (1989). Family size and achievement. University of California Press. isbn 0520062965 free online

    Charles Spearman (1927). The abilities of man: their nature and measurement. London: Macmillan. archive.org

    Charles Spearman (1923/1927, 2nd edition). The nature of &rlquo;intelligence’ and the principles of cognition. London: Macmillan. archive.org

    Jo Rogers (1 September 2018). Ideology is dooming thousands of children to illiteracy The Sunday Morning Herald opinion

    Angeline S. Lillard, Megan J. Heise, Eve M. Richey, Xin Tong, Alyssa Hart and Paige M. Bray (2017). Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study. Front. Psychol., 30 October 2017 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01783 open access

    Linda Gottfredson (1997). Mainstream Science on Intelligence: An Editorial With 52 Signatories, History, and Bibliography. Editorial in 1997 Intelligence, 24, 13-23 pdf Original statement was in The Wallstreet Journal, December 13, 1994. See also: Wikipedia

    Margaret Diane LeCompte & Anthony Gary Dworkin (1991). Giving up on school. Student dropouts and teacher burnouts. Corwin Press. isbn 0803934912 archive.org

    Bryan Caplan (2018). The Case against Education: Why the Education System Is a Waste of Time and Money. Princeton UP. isbn 9780691174655   info

    #key About eduation as a rat race. Eminently relevant to questions of fairness, fairness itself is not at issue with Bryan Caplan, however, witness his index.

    Nicholas Lemann (1999). The big test. The secret history of the American meritocracy. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux. isbn 0374299846 review & interview; -- 'secrets of the SAT'

    Richard T. von Mayrhauser (1992). The mental testing community and validity. A prehistory. <9>American Psychologist, 47, 244-253. abstract Also: contents of special issue on the history of psychology Reprinted in Wade E. Pickren and Donald A. Dewsbury, (2002). Evolving Perspectives on the History of Psychology. American Psychological Association.


    Edwin G. Boring (1929/1950). A history of experimental psychology. Appleton-Century Crofts. isbn 0390109886 archive.org edition 1929

    James Tabery (2014). Beyond versus : the struggle to understand the interaction of nature and nurture. MIT Press. [UB Leiden PSYCHO D8.2.2.-75 ] info

    Key publication. #Galton #Fisher #Hogben #interaction

    Becky Francis (7 September 2018). How setting can lead to 'double disadvantage'. UCL researchers say the evidence suggests that setting widens the attainment gap but has little impact on attainment. Tes. article

    Dirk van Damme (Sept 10, 2018). A thread about 'early tracking': it is true that many - not all - studies show a country-level association between early tracking and strong impact of SES on learning outcomes. This is also the case with PISA analysis. However, there are several methodological issues: Twitterthread

    Hugh Mehan, Irene Villanueva, Lea Hubbard= & Angela Lintz (1996). Constructing school success. The consequences of untracking low achieving students. Cambridge University Press. info ch. 5 The social scaffolding supporting academic placement, ch. 7 Peer group influences supporting untracking ch. 9 Implications for educational practice, ch. 10 Implicatons for theories explaining educational inequality. About the San Diego untracking program AVID (Achievement via Individual Determination). (Google: San Diego untracking program AVID)

    p. 77: Our discussion of the social processes of untracking rests on two interrelated ideas: One, academic life has implict or hidden dimensions that students must master in order to be successful in school; and two, a system of institutional supports or 'scaffolds' supports AVID students as they traverse this implicit cultural system. (...) AVID attempts to maintain a rigorous curriculum for all students while adding increased support for low-achieving students.

    Language Exposure Relates to Structural Neural Connectivity in Childhood. Rachel R. Romeo, Joshua Segaran, Julia A. Leonard, Sydney T. Robinson, Martin R. West, Allyson P. Mackey, Anastasia Yendiki, Meredith L. Rowe and John D.E. Gabrieli. Journal of Neuroscience 5 September 2018, 38 (36) 7870-7877; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0484-18.2018 abstract

    Magnus Henrekson and Johan Wennström (2018). “Post-Truth” Schooling and Marketized Education: Explaining the Decline in Sweden’s School Quality. download

    The pupil premium is not working (part III): Can within-classroom inequalities ever be closed? Posted on September 13, 2018 by Becky Allenblog [blog I and II also available]

    David C. Geary (2018). Efficiency of mitochondrial functioning as the fundamental biological mechanism of general intelligence (g). Psychological Review abstract, full text on research.net <--fs_mitochondria-->

    Robert Chapman (Sept 2018). We’re not prepared for the genetic revolution that’s coming. blog

    Liz Lightfoot (11 Sep 2018). North-south schools divide &rlquo;not supported by evidence’. Major study of 1.8 million pupils also challenges ministers’ claims children do better in academies and grammarsnews


    Herman G. van de Werfhorst (2018). Early Tracking and Socioeconomic Inequality in Academic Achievement: Studying Reforms in Nine Countries. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2018.09.002 abstract and sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.rssm.2018.09.002

    The Question of Knowledge; practicalities of a knowledge-based curriculum. ASCL Association of School and College Leaders. pdf

    Robert J. Sternberg (1999). Intelligence as Developing Expertise. Contemporary Educational Psychology 24(4): 359-375 10.1006/ceps.1998.0998 pdf sci-hub

    George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos (2018). Returns to investment in education: a decennial review of the global literature. Education Economics, 26, 445-458. open

    Anna K. Chmielewski (14 Sep 2018). Can we close gaps in literacy by social background over the life course? Evidence from synthetic 1950-1980 birth cohorts. OECDEducation Working Papers access

    Robert Sternberg, Linda Jarvin, Damian Patrick, Birney Show, & Elena Grigorenko (2014). Testing the Theory of Successful Intelligence in Teaching Grade 4 Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science. Journal of Educational Psychology 106(3):881-899 DOI: 10.1037/a0035833 reserchgate.net

    Special Issue "If Intelligence Is Truly Important to Real-World Adaptation, and IQs Have Risen 30+ Points in the Past Century (Flynn Effect), then Why Are There So Many Unresolved and Dramatic Problems in the World, and What Can Be Done About It?" J. Intell., Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2018) open access

    Harrison J. Kell andJonas W. B. Lang (2018). Special Issue The Great Debate: General Ability and Specific Abilities in the Prediction of Important Outcomes J. Intell. 2018, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence6030039 open access

    Lauren B. Resnick (Ed.) (1976). The nature of intelligence. Erlbaum. isbn 0470013842

    This is an amazing book, in the sense that it shows how little still is known about &rlquo;intelligence’.

    Reviving research on effective schools 26th September 2018//by Karin Chenoweth researchED article

    Steven Pfeiffer, Elizabeth Shaunessy-Dedrick, & Megan Foley-Nicpon , (Eds.) (2018). APA handbook of giftedness and talent. [UB Leiden Pedag] nog niet gezien]

    David Cantor (September 25, 2018). America’s Achievement Gap - Made, Not Born? What a Study of 30,000 Students Reveals About Lowered Expectations and Poorer-Quality Instruction for Kids of Color article

    Paul von Hippel, Joseph Workman, Douglas B. Downey (2018). Inequality in Reading and Math Skills Forms Mainly Before Kindergarten: A Replication, and Partial Correction, of 'Are Schools the Great Equalizer?’ Sociology of Education 10.1177/0038040718801760 abstract & download pdf

    F. W. Garforth (Ed.) (1964). Locke's thoughts concerning education. Abridged with an introduction and commentary.--> [1693, Some thoughts concerning education] Heinemann.

    Silvia H. Barcellos, Leandro S. Carvalho, and Patrick Turley (2018). Education can reduce health differences related to genetic risk of obesity. PNAS published ahead of print October 2, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1802909115 open

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    Caroline Hall, Martin Lundin and Kristina Sibbmark (2018). A laptop for every child? The impact of ICT on educational outcomes. draft

    Over Hirsch en Why knowledge matters. Ben Wilbrink (2016). Waarom geïndividualiseerd onderwijs leidt tot meer ongelijkheid. Vakwerk pdf

    Hessel Oosterbeek Sándor Sóvágó Bas van der Klaauw (nd). Identifying the sources of school segregation. pdf

    Jane J. Mansbridge (Ed.) (1990). Beyond self-interest Chicago UP. isbn 0226503607 #equity info

    The counterculture class warrior who turned to Gove/ Teaching knowledge, Michael FD Young wrote in his influential 70s book, is a ruling-class construct. Not any more, it seems/ interview by Peter Wilby 9 Oct 2018

    James R.Flynn & Michael Shayer (2018). IQ decline and Piaget: Does the rot start at the top? Intelligence, 66, 112-121. open

    Demanet, Jannick, Van Houtte, Mieke (Eds.) (2019). Resisting Education: A Cross-national Study on Systems and School Effects. Introduces a comparative and international perspective to address school resistance. [I have not yet seen the book]

    Dalton Conley & Jason Fletcher (2017). The genome factor. What the Social Genomics Revolution Reveals about Ourselves, Our History, and the Future Princeton UP. info & pdf Ch. 1 article

    Janet Browne (2003). Charles Darwin. The power of place. Volume II of a biography. The origin and after - the years of fame. Knopf. isbn 0679429328 info

    Andrew van Dam (9 Oct 2018). It’s better to be born rich than gifted. Wshington Post wonkblog

    A. Pluchino, A. E. Biondo, A. Rapisarda (2018). Talent vs Luck: the role of randomness in success and failure. arXiv pdf [see also http://www.pluchino.it/talent-vs-luck.html ]

    The OECD view on equity in education: read

    Mads Meier Jaeger & Richard Breen (2016). A Dynamic Model of Cultural Reproduction. American Journal of Sociology, 121 (4), 1079–1115. doi:10.1086/684012 sci-hub.tw/10.1086/684012

    Susan Clayton & Christie manning (Eds.) (2018). Psychology and climate change. Human perceptions, impacts, and responses. Academic Press. [UB Leiden PSYCHO G2.7,-69] info

    Linda Darling-Hammond, Channa M. Cook-Harvey, Lisa Flook, Madelyn Gardner, and Hanna Melnick (2018). With the Whole Child in Mind: Insights from the Comer School Development Program info

    via Linda Darling-Hammond. (1st chapter)

    W. Ray Rhine (1981). Making schools more effective: New directions from Follow Through Academic Press.

    Rhine, Ray W. (1983). The role of psychologists in the national Follow Through Project. American Psychologist, 38, 288-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.38.3.288

    Project Follow Through: A Case Study of Contingencies. Influencing Instructional Practices of the Educational Establishment. Cathy L. Watkins (1997). http://www.behavior.org/resources/901.pdf

    (1975). A Description of Follow Through Sponsor Implementation Processes. archive.org

    Andreas Schleicher (november 2018). World Class. How to Build a 21st-Century School System. OECD. read

    Stephen Gorard & Nadia Siddiqui (2017). Grammar schools in England: a new analysis of social segregation and academic outcomes British Journal of Sociology of Education, 39, 909-924. open access

    Robert J. Sternberg (1998). Abilities are forms of developing expertise. Educational Researcher, 27, 11-20. [nog opzoeken]

    McCoy, D. C., Yoshikawa, H., Ziol-Guest, K. M., Duncan, G. J., Schindler, H. S., Magnuson, K., … Shonkoff, J. P. (2017). Impacts of Early Childhood Education on Medium- and Long-Term Educational Outcomes. Educational Researcher, 46(8), 474–487. doi:10.3102/0013189x17737739 sci-hub

    Slusser, E., Ribner, A., & Shusterman, A. (2018). Language counts : Early language mediates the relationship between parent education and children’s math ability. Developmental Science, doi:10.1111/desc.12773 sci-hub

    Thomas Piketty (December 9, 2018). Our manifesto to save Europe from itself manifesto

    Judea Pearl (2018). Does Obesity Shorten Life? Or is it the Soda? On Non-manipulable Causes. Journal of Causal Inference, 6(2), online, September 2018. https://doi.org/10.1515/jci-2018-2001 pdf

    Stuart J. Ritchie, Timothy C. Bates, and Ian J. Deary (2015) 'Is education associated with improvements in general cognitive ability, or in specific skills?' Developmental Psychology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 573-582. DOI: 10.1037/a0038981 open

    Patrick C. Kyllonen (2018). Inequality, Education, Workforce Preparedness, and Complex Problem Solving. J. Intell. 2018, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence6030033 open

    This article need debunking ;-) [nog op te nemen in onderwijs_2032_check]

    The Inequality Paradox: Rising Inequalities Nationally, Diminishing Inequality Worldwide. Posted on December 10, 2018 by Branko Milanovic blog

    Jay S. Kaufman & Crles Muntaner (27 March 2016). 'The association between intelligence and lifespan is mostly genetic' International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 45, Issue 2, 1 April 2016, Pages 576–577,https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyw019comment

    Critial comments on an article by Arden et al. (Via .. )

    John Mighton (2018) Extreme Equality - Closing the Achievement Gap in Math vimeo

    John Rawls (1971). A theory of justice. Clarendon Press. isbn 0198243685 info

    Akito Okada (2013). The Historical Transformation of the Concept of Equality of Educational Opportunity in Post-war England and Japan. pdf

    Jonathan J. B. Mijs (forthcoming 2019). The Paradox of Inequality: Income Inequality and Belief in Meritocracy go Hand in Hand. Socio-Economic Review pdf

    Arnold Angenendt (1997/2000 2e) Geschichte der Religiosität im Mittelalter. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Kein isbn. (ed. 2009 isbn 9783896786555). info

    A moral 'blank slate' in Christianity.

    Using DNA from mothers and children to study parental investment in children's educational attainment. Jasmin Wertz a.o. (2018). preprint

    Erzsebet Bukodi (2019). Britain’s social mobility problem has been misunderstood – education is not the great leveller. January 8, 2019 blog

    Erzsébet Bukodi & John H. Goldthorpe, (2018). Social Mobility and Education in Britain. Research, Politics and Policy. Cambridge University Press. info; Conclusions: sci-hub

    Nadia Siddiqui, Vikki Boliver & Stephen Gorard (2019). Reliability of Longitudinal Social Surveys of Access to Higher Education: The Case of Next Steps in England. Social Inclusion. open

    September 11, 1999. Two Views on How to Get Johnny to Read and Think. The New York Times - on the web Toward Good Thinking
On Essential Questions, By HOWARD GARDNER. & Finding the Answers In Drills and Rigor, By E.D. HIRSCH Jr. aricle

    Julie Henry (20 Januay 2019). No talking in the corridor, mobiles confiscated for a week and public apologies: How Britain's strictest headmaster turned around his failing school The Mail on Sunday | Mail Online article

    Paul T. von Hippel & Caitlin Hamrock (2019). Do Test Score Gaps Grow Before, During, or Between the School Years? Measurement Artifacts and What We Can Know in Spite of Them. Sociological Science. download pdf

    Michael Young David Lambert Martin Roberts (2014). Knowledge and the Future School. info [ haven't seen the book yet. Young published a number of books in recent years]

    Knowledge, Expertise and the Professions, by Michael Young (Editor), Johan Muller (Editor) (2014) https://www.amazon.com/Knowledge-Expertise-Professions-Michael-Young/dp/0415713919 [ haven't seen the book yet. Young published a number of books in recent years]

    Michael Young (2011). What are schools for? Educa¸ão, Sociedade & Culturas, # 32, 2011, 145-155 open

    Stephen Gorard, Nadia Siddiqui (2019). How Trajectories of Disadvantage Help Explain School Attainment. SAGE Open open

    Resisting Education: A Cross-National Study on Systems and School Effects. Editors: Demanet, Jannick, Van Houtte, Mieke (Eds.) previews

    Some Principles of Stratification. Author(s): Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore. American Sociological Review, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1944 Annual Meeting Papers (Apr., 1945), pp. 242-249pdf

    See also Tumin, 1953, below.

    Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis. Author(s): Melvin M. Tumin. American Sociological Review, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Aug., 1953), pp. 387-394pdf

    Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis: Reply. Author(s): Kingsley Davis. American Sociological Review, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Aug., 1953), pp. 394-397pdf

    David Didau (2018). Making kids cleverer. A manifesto for closing the advantage gap. Crown House Publishing Limited. isbn 9781785833663 summaries

    Does this David Didau book make my work on fair schooling superfluous? I hope so! I will read it from cover to cover.

    Andrew Gumble (2019). California schools were once the nation's envy. What went wrong? page

    Amanda Spielman at the 'Wonder Years' curriculum conference (26 January 2019) page

    THE GREAT DIVIDE What Happens When the Poor Receive a Stipend? BY MOISES VELASQUEZ-MANOFF JANUARY 18, 2014 3:47 PM article

    Sam Friedman and Daniel Laurison (). The Class Ceiling: Why it Pays to be Privileged. besteld Zie ook article based on the book

    Are Intellectuals Suffering a Crisis of Meaning? What is the relationship between intellectual giftedness and meaning in life? By Scott Barry Kaufman on February 8, 2019 Scientific American open

    Ben Wilbrink (February 10). Is intelligence a thing? Twitter thread

    Tina Baier & Volker Lang (2019). The Social Stratification of Environmental and Genetic Influences on Education: New Evidence Using a Register-Based Twin Sample Sociological Science open.

    Felicitas Macgilchrist (2018). Cruel optimism in edtech: when the digital data practices of educational technology providers inadvertently hinder educational equity. Learning, Media and Technology, 44 (speial issue: The datafication of education). https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2018.1556217 abstract [try sci hub]

    "Curiosity and openness matter more than diligence and perseverance" Via @MarcXSmith. interview

    'This is a very delicate topic ....' Needs critical annotation.

    Deans for Impact. (2019) The science of early learning. pdf

    Sam Friedman and Daniel Laurison (2018). The Class Ceiling: Why it Pays to be Privileged. Policy Press. isbn 9781447336068 See also this article in The Guardian.

    Sean F. Reardon, Demetra Kalogrides, Kenneth Shores (2017). The Geography of Racial/Ethnic Test Score Gaps. CEPA Working Paper 16-10. [Published also in the American Journal of Sociology Volume 124, Number 4 | January 2019. pdf

    Broer, Markus, Bai, Yifan, Fonseca, Frank(2019). Socioeconomic Inequality and Educational Outcomes. Evidence from Twenty Years of TIMSS. open access [but not yet available, March 16]

    Morris Berman (1978). Social change and scientific organization. The Royal Institution, 1799-1844. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. isbn 0801410932 9780801410932 worldcat

    School segregation in Sweden: evidence from the local level NESET ad hoc question No. 1/2019 By Dr Per Kornhall and German Bender pdf

    Larry Cuban (March 23, 2019). 'Successful' Schools? Looking at MetWest High School and Social Justice Humanitas Academy. blog

    Serge-Christophe Kolm (1996). Modern theories of justice. MIT Press. isbn 0262112086 info

    Michel Rosenfeld (1991). Affirmative action and justice. A philosophical and constitutional inquiry. Yale University Press. isbn 0300055080 info

    M. Cavanagh (2002). Against equality of opportunity. Clarendon Press. isbn 0199243433 9780199243433 info

    Larry S. Temkin (1993/96). Inequality. Oxford University Press. isbn 0195111494 info

    Morton Deutsch (1985). Distributive justice: a social-psychological perspective. Yale Universty Press. isbn 0300032900

    Manfred Nowak (1995). The right to education. Chapter 12 in Asbjorn Eide, Catarina Krause & Allan Rosas (Eds.) (1995). Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. A Textbook (189-212). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. isbn 0792332776 info

    Arnold P. Goldstein (1973). Structured learning therapy. Toward a psychotherapy for the poor. Academic Press. isbn 0122887506

    Judith R. Harris (1998). The nurture assumption. Why children turn out the way they do. Parents matter less than you think and peers matter more. New York: Free Press.

    Christine Rubie-Davis (2014). Becoming a high expectation teacher. Routledge. [niet in UB Leiden, ook niet als online access] [in KB dan? Dat weet ik niet] [Besproken door ErikMeester in Didactief, juni 2019, p. 48-49] [amazon.de kindle €23,63] [duur boek, abstracts van ieder hoofdstuk zijn zijn wel in te zien:] chapter abstracts

    Martha Minow (1990). Making all the difference. Inclusion, exclusion, and American law. Cornell University Press. isbn 0801499771 info

    Rishi Sriram (2019). What Alfred Binet and Maria Montessori Can Teach Us about Intelligence. They found ways to develop human intellect, including in students thought to have limited prospects. Scientific American, Observations

    Karl L. Alexander, Doris R. Entwisle and Linda S. Olson (2001). Schools, Achievement, and Inequality: A Seasonal Perspective. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. Vol. 23, No. 2 (Summer, 2001), pp. 171-191. read online

    Anke Heyder, Anne F. Weidinger, Andrei Cimpian, Ricarda Steinmayr (2020). Teachers’ belief that math requires innate ability predicts lower intrinsic motivation among low-achieving students. Learning and Instruction, 65 open

    Douglas B. Downey, David M. Quinn, Melissa Alcaraz (2019). The Distribution of School Quality: Do Schools Serving Mostly White and High-SES Children Produce the Most Learning? First Published August 23, 2019 Research Article abstract [try scihub for pdf]

    Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren (2018). The Impacts of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility I: Childhood Exposure Effects. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 133, 1107-1162 open

    Interessant onderzoek. Het is Amerikaans onderzoek, ik mag aannemen dat het grootste deel van het gevonden effect te maken heeft met kwaliteit van het onderwijs (reden voor ouders die zich dat kunnen permitteren om naar betere districten te verhuizen). (Dronkers: ook in A'dam!) Dat onderzoek naar effect van districten zou dus wel eens een onderzoek naar effect van kwaliteitsverschillen in onderwijs kunnen zijn. Toch? Maakt het dubbel interessant.

    Xuejie Ding, Nicola Barban, Melinda C. Mills (2019). Educational attainment and allostatic load in later life: Evidence using genetic markers. Preventive Medicine, Volume 129, December 2019, 105866 open

    Per Engzell and Felix C. Tropf (2019). Heritability of education rises with intergenerational mobility. PNAS open access

    Genes and family are the biggest predictor of academic success, new study suggests http://bit.ly/2sF1JmN. More about lead author Professor Sophie von Stumm’s research http://bit.ly/35e8toR and via @HungryMindLab #UoYequality Twitter

    Breinholt, A., & Jæger, M. M. (2020). How does cultural capital affect educational performance: Signals or skills? The British Journal of Sociology, 71(1), 28–46. doi:10.1111/1468-4446.12711  url to share this paper: scihub

    Adam Swift (23 January 2020) What’s fair about that? London Review of Books Vol. 42 No. 2 page


    Why Have American Schools Failed in Closing the Achievement Gap? A Case Study of California’s Palo Alto School District page Citation: Concerned Parent, A. (2020). Why Have American Schools Failed in Closing the Achievement Gap? A Case Study of California’s Palo Alto School District, Nonpartisan Education Review / Testimonials. Retrieved [date] from https://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Testimonials/v16n1.htm

    Michael S. Merry & Willem Boterman (2020). Educational inequality and state-sponsored elite education: the case of the Dutch gymnasium. Comparative ediucation open access

    Michael S. Merry (2020). Educational Justice Liberal Ideals, Persistent Inequality, and the Constructive Uses of Critique. Palgrave. Kostbaar (wacht maar liever op een softcover reprint). info

    January, 2020 \ contact ben at at at benwilbrink.nl    

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