Fair schooling

Ben Wilbrink

For literature in Dutch see here

I have yet organize the pertinent literature according to a multitude of subjects in separate files in a dedicated map literature/fair_schooling.htm, in preparation for blogs on those subjects.

An article on fair schooling, in Dutch, will appear in the september 2018 special issue on equal chances of Van Twaalf tot Achttien, as well as on the site of that journal, stay tuned ;-)

Fair schooling is a very broad theme. My contributions (blogs) will be somewhat limited according to my own rather unique profile of expertise covering education research, differential and cognitive psychology, history of education, especially the links between these fields. Be prepared for lots of surprises (I hope).

Subjects: talent and intelligence nature/nurture; fair instructional theory; fair schooling

It is my intention (Spring 2018) to write a long and complex series of blogs investigating the myriad aspects of fair schooling and its possibilities and impossibilities. Writing in English would handicap the development of my thinking, so I will first write a series of papers in Dutch as somewhat erratic preliminary investigations of particular subjects, only to return to them later for refining, connecting, whatever, in English 'translation' (more probably complete rewrites) to be published as an ordered long series of WordPress blogs. The first paper in Dutch has yet to appear, I will place it in my publications map as benwilbrink.nl/publicaties/fair_schooling_1 Etcetera. Working in Dutch will make it possible to write fast, and much. I even might lapse into writing certain passages in English.

Update: I have committed myself to write a 1200 words article on fair chances, in Dutch, to appear September 2018. It'll be about the complexity of the subject, problematising instead of furnishing answers. In broad outline it will probably treat the following.

(1) Inequality is about differences between people. I feel at home thinking and writing about differences. After all, differences is what differential psychology is about, a topic that has been with me for half a century now. It is my experience that 'individual differences' is a difficult concept for people not trained in personality and testpsychology. Yet is crucial for many if not most analyses of inequality of chances in education. If you are now associating these differences with the 'difference principle' as developed by John Rawls, be assured there are strong relations between concepts in Rawls's theory of justice ('talents'), and concepts of personality ('intelligence'). For an introduction to these concepts in the theory of justice, see, e.g., Rosenkrantz (1978) and https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/justice-distributive/ . Therefore there is good reason in the following to speak of fair chances instead of equal chances. Equality almost never obtains, yet the concept itself strongly suggests it does. Is it possible for educational chances to be 'somewhat equal'or 'almost equal'? Sounds strenuous. The concept is treated by many authors as kind of self-explaining, all one has to do is sample instances of equality and inequality? Contrast this with the concept of fair chances: we do have theories of justice (e.g., John Rawls; Amertya Sen; Martha Nussbaum) to give meaning to fairness. And we do have psychological theories (Anders Ericsson; Han van der Maas; James Flynn) to give meaning to the individual differences (talents, capabilities, affordances, achievements) involved.

Of course, people are born and live in different circumstances, a subject of sociology. Circumstances and abilities/talents come together in rather peculiar ways in behaviour genetics (e.g., Asbury & Plomin G is for genes), in my humble opinion a direct threat to education. It might be that some behavioural scientists have lost sight of the peculiar character of behaviour genetics: heritabilities are population characteristics/statistics, not individual ones. Therefore, there is nothing in education that depends on heritablities. In any case, this is one of the many issues that I'll have to clear up, at least to myself ;-) [key: Lewontin 1974}

(2) In another project, assessment in history, I have experienced how important it is to do some historical research: it just might be the case that our practices in education (or in psychology and behavioural genetics) have their roots in the past. Grading practices have evolved (in a very short time in the nineteenth century) from the ubiquitous ranking practices in education. Knowledge of that fact makes one never to look upon grading practices the same: they are just ranking practices trying to look like 'scientific' measurements.

In a class society, like the nineteenth century still was, the upper classes didn't always think of the lower and lowest classes as people. There you go. Along comes the new science of genetics, how easy it is then to ascribe differences between the classes to genetics. It is in the nineteenth century that the idea of heritability of individual differences in talents found a hearing in upper intellectual classes (there were protests against this humiliating way of thinking also, ofcourse). Are we still thinking in nineteenth century grooves, as far as fair schooling is involved?

(3) About 1800 there was little or no education at all for most of the population. (some reading and writing, orphanages might have a teacher ; evening schools [Dutch example: Mathesis Scientiarum Genitrix https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathesis_Scientiarum_Genitrix ] What, then, does the transition to education-for-all look like? Fritz Ringer, of course is a key author on the subject. How that kind of transition is possible at all is another question. One key idea is Kremer's 'O-ring theory of economic development', dat een ontwikkeling op gebied van X vervolgens ontwikkeling in gebieden Y en Z mogelijk maakt. En er gebeurt veel in de aanvang van die 19e eeuw op gebieden van transport, industrie, wetenschap, standaardisering van maten en gewichten, enzovoort. I'm sorry, I shifted to Dutch without noticing it.

Kick off: Twitter thread.

Hypothesis 10. More often than not, equal opportunity is considered conditional on talent or intelligence, both taken as inborn characteristics.

Equal opportunity therefore is taken to mean equal opportunity for equally talented pupils.

Hypothesis 11. Because of what is stated in Hypothesis 10, equal opportunity protagonists typically organize education in ways that tend to preserve class differences. Kind of a contradiction in terms.

Recognized in sociology, of course, as reproduction of inequality. A.o.: Bourdieu & Passeron.


John Rawls: Theory of justice
Amartya Sen: The idea of justice
Martha Nusbaum: capabilities.

Why ‘fair’, not ‘equal’? In the real world there are no equalities. People and their circumstances are unequal; a just society treats people fairly according to their differences / different circumstances.

The idea behind my push for usage of fair chances in education, instead of equal chances: (1) ‘equal’ gives a false impression of simplicity, (2) ‘fair’ forces one to explicate what might be fair in particular circumstances for particular pupils.

talent and intelligence nature/nurture

Anders Ericsson: expertise, deliberate practice
David C. Geary: biologically primary and secondary capabilities
dogmatism: psychometrics; differential psychology

fair instructional theory

K. Anders Ericsson deliberate practice
Anna Bosman
unfair instructional theory: differentiation, individualisation; generic skills

fair schooling

Isaac Beeckman Academie?
Core Knowledge schools E. D.Hirsch Jr.?
France, before the Law Jospin (1989)?
Carl Wieman?
John Mighton: Jump Math
Eric van 't Zelfde: Superschool?
unfair schooling: differentiation, individualisation; generic skills; grade retention; tracking

François Dubet &Marie Duru-Bellat (2007). What Makes for Fair Schooling? In Richard Teese, Stephen Lamb & Marie Duru-Bellat, (Eds.) International Studies in Educational Inequality, Theory and Policy, 941-957 Springer preview & references paywalled [no access; not in UB Leiden; not in KB]

Hin-Tai (July 29, 2017). Is this the best we can do? Part 7: the spacing effect blog

Must read.

Emma Smith & Stephen Gorard (2006). Pupils’ views on equity in schools. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 36 abstract

paywalled [I have no access]


literature, annotations

Jacky Lumby & Marianne Coleman (2016). Leading for Equality. Making Schools Fairer. Sage.[eBook in KB] info & preview

Madeline Crosswaite and Kathryn Asbury (2018). Teacher beliefs about the aetiology of individual differences in cognitive ability, and the relevance of behavioural genetics to education. British Journal of Educational Psychology abstract

Robeyns, I. (2006) ‘Three models of education: Rights, Capabilities and Human Capital’, Theory and Research in Education, 4 (1), 69-84. abstract

Amartya Sen (2003). Development as capability expansion. In Fukuda-Parr S, et al: Readings in Human Development. pdf

Michael Young (1958). The rise of the meritocracy 1870 - 2033. An essay on education and equality. Thames and Hudson.

Heather Boushey, J. Bradford Delong & Marshall Steinbaum (Eds.). After Piketty. The agenda for economics and inequality. Harvard UP. isbn 9780674504776 info & blog

Ida Gran Andersen & Simon Calmar Andersen (2015). Student-centered instruction and academic achievement: linking mechanisms of educational inequality to schools' instructional strategy British Journal of Sociology of Education abstract

D. S. Wilson, R. A Kauffman Jr & M. S. Purdy (2011) A program for at-risk high school students informed by evolutionary science. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027826. PLoS One free

The Regents Academy, New York.

Amartya Sen (2009). The idea of justice. Allen Lane. isbn 9781846141478 info

Amartya Sen (1999). Development as freedom. Knopf. isbn 0375406190 info

Amartya Sen (Ed.) (1982/1997). Choice, welfare and measurement. Harvard University Press. isbn 0674127781 info

John Rawls (1971). A theory of justice. Clarendon Press. isbn 0198243685 info

Samuel Freeman (Ed.) (1999). John Rawls. Collected papers. Harvard University Press. info

John Rawls (2001) Justice as fairness. A restatement. Belknap Harvard. info

James Coleman (1990). Equality and achievement in education. London: Westview Press. [Reader of Coleman articles and chapters] info

Martha C. Nussbaum (2011). Creating capabilities. The human development approach. Belknap Press/Harvard University Press. isbn 9780674050549 info

Martha C. Nussbaum (1997). Cultivating humanity. A classical defense of reform in liberal education. Harvard University Press. info

Joseph Stiglitz (2013). The price of inequality W. W. Norton. isbn 9780393345063 review

Barry Garelick (December 5, 2016). How attempts to force equity in math classes can protect kids from learning. blog

David Sloan Wilson (Oct 19, 2016). The Tragedy of the Commons: How Elinor Ostrom Solved One of Life’s Greatest Dilemmas. The design principles for solving the tragedy of the commons can be applied to all groups. blog

Carina Mood (2017). More than Money: Social Class, Income, and the Intergenerational Persistence of Advantage. Sociological Science, 4, 263-287.. pdf

"I show that parental class matters at a given income and income matters within a given social class, and the net associations are substantial"

Gap in key subject achievement between 15-yr-olds in England one of the "most unequal among developed countries" tweet

Michelle Jackson (Ed.) (2013). Determined to Succeed?: Performance versus Choice in Educational Attainment. info [niet in UB Leiden, niet in KB] Niet gezien.

Thijs Bol, Jacqueline Witschge, Herman G. Van de Werfhorst, Jaap Dronkers (2014). Curricular Tracking and Central Examinations: Counterbalancing the Impact of Social Background on Student Achievement in 36 Countries. Social Forces 92(4) 1545-1572, June 2014 Advance Access publication on 1 March 2014 pdf

Correlation, Consumption, Confusion, or Constraints: Why Do Poor Children Perform So Poorly? by Elizabeth M. Caucutt, Lance Lochner and Youngmin Park. Working Paper # 2015-3. Published: The Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Special issue on social mobility. Early view July 2016. pdf

K. Anders Ericsson, Ralf Th. Krampe, and Clemens Tesch-Romer (1993). The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363-406. pdf

James R. Flynn (2007/2009). What Is Intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect. Cambridge University Press. isbn 9780521741477 abstract

James Flynn (2016). Does your Family Make You Smarter? Nature, Nurture, and Human Autonomy. info.

Belangrijke plaats ingeruimd (zie p. 151-2) voor de intelligentie-theorie van Han van der Maas c.s. 2006. Peter Wilby (27 September 2016) interviews James Flynn blog

Kathryn Asbury & Robert Plomin (2014). G is for Genes: The impact of genetics on education and achievement. Wiley. isbn 9781118482780 info

The authors draw wrong conclusions from heritability coefficients, in my opinion. I will have to analyse the book yet. The authors' opinion is that schooling should reckon with individual differences in intelligence. That is the opposite of what is necessary for schooling to be fair.

E. D. Hirsch, Jr. (Sept. 20, 2016). Why knowledge matters. Rescuing our children from failed educational theories. Harvard Education Press. isbn 9781612509525 info and prologue pdf - reviewed

Michael Argyle (1994). The psychology of social class. Routledge. 0415079551 info

Nicholas Wright Gillham (2001). Sir Francis Galton. From African exploration to the birth of eugenics. Oxford University Press. isbn 0195143655 info

Francis Galton (1869/1892/1979). Hereditary genius. An inquiry into its laws and consequences. London: Julian Friedman Publishers. isbn 0904014460 2000 digital free access

Richard E. Nisbett (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York, NY: Norton. [UBL PSYCHO C6.-148 ] info

In Ch 7: Perry Preschool & Abecedarian. !!!

W. Howison (1826). The contest of the twelve nations; or, a view of the different bases of human character and talent. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. The book is anonymous., but the author is known to be William Howison. online

Leila Zenderland (1998). Measuring minds. Henry Herbert Goddard and the origins of American intelligence testing. Cambridge University Press. isbn 0521003636

Shelleyann Scott, Charles F. Webber, Judy L. Lupart, Nola Aitken & Donald E. Scott (2013). Fair and equitable assessment practices for all students, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. online first 2013 abstract

Fabian Dietrich, Martin Heinrich & Nina Thieme (Eds.) (2013). Bildungsgerechtigkeit jenseits von Chancengleichheit. Theoretische und empirische Ergänzungen und Alternativen zu 'PISA'. Springer info

Dylan Molenaar & Denny Borsboom (2013) The formalization of fairness: issues in testing for measurement invariance using subtest scores, Educational Research and Evaluation, 19, 223-244. abstract

Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Britte H. Cheng, Liliana Ructtinger, Angela DeBarger, Elizabeth Murray, David Rose, Jenna Gravel, Alexis M. Colker, Daisy Rutstein & Terry Vendlinski (2013). A “conditional” sense of fairness in assessment. Educational Research and Evaluation, 19 121-140. abstract

Alice Bradbury (2013). Understanding Early Years Inequality. Policy, assessment and young children’s identities. Routledge. site Een beperkt aantal bladzijden is daar vrij in te zien. Waarschijnlijk komt het boek als eBook beschikbaar in de KB

Stephen J. Ceci & Paul B. Papierno (2005). The Rhetoric and Reality of Gap Closing. When the 'Have-Nots' Gain but the 'Haves' Gain Even More. American Psychologist, 60, 149-160. pdf

Jeannie Oakes (2005). Keeping track. How schools structure inequality. Yale University Press, second edition 2005 (new preface, extra chapters discussing the 'tracking wars' of the last 20 years) (

Jeannie Oakes is Presidential Professor and Director of the Institute for Democracy Education and Access at University of California, Los Angeles.)

William H. Schmidt, Nathan A. Burroughs, Pablo Zoido & Richard T. Houang (2015). The Role of Schooling in Perpetuating Educational Inequality: An International Perspective. Educational Researcher. Open access abstract

Uses PISA: on experienced curriculum at individual level. Quite special. Might show constructivist methods to harm (low SES) groups of students. I have to study this one carefully.

Rebecca Tarlau (2016) If the past devours the future, why study? Piketty, social movements, and future directions for education, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37:6, 861-872, DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2016.1165084 download here

Kathryn Moeller & Rebecca Tarlau (2016) Thomas Piketty's relevance for the study of education: reflections on the political economy of education, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37:6, 805-809, DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2016.1200821 download here

Richard J. Herrnstein & Charles Murray (1994). The Bell curve. Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: The Free Press. isbn 0029146739 [‘The Bell Curve’’ 20 years later: A Q&A with Charles Murray. interview [een scan van het hele boek: https://lesacreduprintemps19.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/the-bell-curve.pdf ]

The authors prefer to use cognitive ability instead of intelligence.

The six points illustrate the mainstream position of especially American psychologists studying differences in intelligence. It is by no means the case, as H&M claim, that there is no technical dispute. The dispute was already going on at the turn of the 20th century, and many of the arguments are still valid today. Developments in recent years (after 1994) add new arguments: the Flynn effect, the network approach (Van der Maas and others), research on experts (Ericsson and others). Remark that nowhere do H&M refer to cognitive science: their treatment of intelligence is in terms of individual differences as measured by tests of cognitive ability in the (school) population. This individual differences frame is contingent on our (school) culture. In the field of education, contemporary folk conceptions of intelligence are derived from the psychologcal dogmatism of, e.g., Edward Thorndike: intelligence does exist, it is a stable characteristic of the individual, therefore it must be genetic in origin.

@ 1: Yes, there is a positive manifold of cognitive abilities.

@ 2. Yes. I’d rather not call tests ‘measurements of this general factor’, though. @ 3. Yes. And that is a serious problem because what is reflected in ordinary language is folk psychology. Scientific psychology surely should not be folk psychology clad as pseudoscientific psychology. @ 4. This simply is not true. Education will make a difference. Environments make for differences, therefore changes in the environment will effect IQ scores. @ 5. IQ tests not biased? Come on. The APA Standards warn for bias! @ 6: The main question: small genetic differences get amplified in environmental dynamics. Heritability coefficients should not include those dynamics.

Geraldine J. Clifford (1968/1984 pb). Edward L. Thorndike: The sane positivist. Wesleyan University Press. isbn 0819560928 [out of print] Amazon

The interesting chapter is XIV Individualism, heredity, and determinism (311-333).

About 1900, fierce discussions on nature-nurture questions. Big influencer here: Edward Thorndike en his ideas on the dominance of genetics in differences of intelligence. Intelligence is inborn, that is what psychology and what the public at large will take away from psychology at the turn of the century. Clifford is quite informative, see her pp. 322 ff. With Thorndike, as with other contemporaneous authors, his writing is a game with words. First supposing nurture to be equal, all differences must be due to genetic differences in innate abilities. That is logic, not empirical science. Nevertheles, the ideology here gets clad in the clothes of science, and is still highly influential in the psychological literature as well as in behavior genetics (e.g. Plomin and others). Today’s insight is, ‘yes, there are genetic differences, they get swamped by environmental circumstances, however’ (Nisbett; Ericsson; Flynn & Dickens). Another way to express the same thing: in environmental dynamics small genetic differences might be multiplied/enlarged. The enlargements, however, are environmental, not genetic. See Flynn 2016 on the complexities of that dynamics.

Crucial developments in American psychology about 1900 result in a lock-in of certain ideas on intelligence as a trait, the heritability of differences in that trait, and the stability of those differences (Thorndike, Pearson, Goddard). What is a lock-in? That is, e.g., the particular layout of the QUERTY keyboard. Those century old ideas get reflected in the six bullets of Hernstein & Murray (1994, p.

David C. Geary (1995). Reflections of evolution and culture in children's cognition. Implications for mathematical development and instruction. American Psychologist, 50, 24-36. pdf [Biologically primary and biologically secondary abilities]

André Tricot & John Sweller (2014). Domain-specific knowledge and why teaching generic skills does not work. Educational Psychology Review preview & concept

Geary, D (2007). Educating the evolved mind: Conceptual foundations for an evolutionary educational psychology, Ch 1 in Educating the evolved mind: Conceptual foundations for an evolutionary educational psychology, JS Carlson & JR Levin (Eds). Information Age Publishing. [info] Chapter 1 pdf

David C. Geary (2005). The origin of mind. Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

John Sweller (). Story of a research program. Education Review webpage

Stephen J. Ceci (1991). How much does schooling influence general intelligence and its cognitive components? A reassessment of the evidence Developmental Psychology abstract [paywalled; do not have a copy yet]

Christian N. Brinch & Taryn Ann Galloway (2011). Schooling in adolescence raises IQ scores PNAS pdf

David P. Baker, Daniel Salinas & Paul J. Eslinger (2012). An envisioned bridge: Schooling as a neurocognitive developmental institution. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 2, Supplement 1, 15 February 2012, Pages S6-S17 open access

Camilla Persson Benbow & David Lubinsky (Eds.) (). Intellectual talent. Psychometric and social issues. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pdf book

R. I. Watson (1968/1977). The individual, social, educational, economic and political conditions for the original practices of detection and utilization of individual aptitude differences. Colloques: Textes XIIe Congrès International d’Histoire des Sciences. Paris: Michel, 1968, pp. 355-368. Reprinted in Jozef Brozek & Rand B. Evans (1977). R. I. Watson’s selected papers on the history of psychology (309-324). University of New Hampshire / University Press of New England. 0874511305

‘Individual differences’, as a concept, probably used in psychology in 1885 for the first time. By J. McKeen Cattell, source: R. I. Watson 1968 p. 319, in his ‘The inertia of eye and brain’. Yet, if I remember my Boring well, the idea of individual differences was brought home to psychologists by the problems of the Astronomer Royal: he had relatively long reaction times in time measurements using telescopic observations.

Deary, IJ 1996, 'Reductionism and intelligence: The case of inspection time' Journal of Biosocial Science, vol 28, no. 4, pp. 405-423. DOI: 10.1017/S0021932000022501pdf

Wendy Berliner & Deborah Eyre (2017). Great minds and how to grow them. Routledge. 9781138284609 info

Benjamin Alcott (July, 2017). Might progress assessments hinder equitable progress? Evidence from England. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability open access

Looks like a lot of sense as well as nonsense, with little guidance as to what is what. Why did I buy this one?

Nicholas Wright Gillham (2001). Sir Francis Galton. From African exploration to the birth of eugenics. Oxford University Press. isbn 0195143655 info

Geschreven door een geneticus, ziet er doorwrocht uit, gaat op statistische verdiensten ook uitvoerig in.

James R. Newman (1956/1988). The world of mathematics. Tempus. isbn 1556151489

tweeted this one

David Figlio and Krzysztof Karbownik (2017). Some schools much better than others at closing achievement gaps between their advantaged and disadvantaged students. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 2, #19 July 20, 2017. Economic Studies at Brookings. pdf

Rogier A. Kievit, Ulman Lindenberger, Ian M. Goodyer, Peter B. Jones, Peter Fonagy, Edward T. Bullmore, the Neuroscience in Psychiatry Network, and Raymond J. Dolan (2017). Mutualistic Coupling Between Vocabulary and Reasoning Supports Cognitive Development During Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood. Psychological Science open access

Linda S. Gottfredson (1997). Mainstream Science on Intelligence: An Editorial With 52 Signatories, History, and Bibliography. INTELLIGENCE U(I) 13-23 pdf

D. C. Geary, A. Nicholas & J. & Sun (2017). Developmental change in the influence of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge on mathematics achievement: An eight-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(5), 680-693. paywalled .sci-hub.cc [ik heb helaas geen toegang]

Elizabeth Dhuey, David Figlio, Krzysztof Karbownik, Jeffrey Roth (2017). School Starting Age and Cognitive Development. NBER Working Paper No. 23660 Issued in August 2017 download

Marlous Tiekstra (2016). Fostering the Learning Potential of At-risk Students in the Classroom: Studies into the Consequential Validity of Dynamic Assessment. Diss. Groningen University. downloads

Toby Young 25 August 2017 Free schools are working - just look at their GCSE results blog

Ian Deary (2000). Looking Down on Human Intelligence: From Psychometrics to the Brain. UBL PSYCHO P4.1.2.-80 not yet borrowed

Dylan Wiliam (2005). Measuring 'Intelligence': what can we learn and how can we move forward? Paper presented at the annual meeting of AERA, Montreal, Canada, April 2005. ETS. pdf

Many good points, and some that are controversial (in my opinion, that is ;-) ) (for example, the next to last sentence of the paper;part of the problem here is that intelligence and school achievement are somewhat the same constructs, already with Binet!).

Jeanne S. Chall (2000). The Academic Achievement Challenge. What Really Works in the Classroom? The Guilford Press. 1572307684 info

Han L. J. van der Maas, Conor V. Dolan, Raoul P. P. P. Grasman, Jelte M. Wicherts, Hilde M. Huizenga, and Maartje E. J. Raijmakers (2006). A Dynamical Model of General Intelligence: The Positive Manifold of Intelligence by Mutualism Psychological Review, 113, 842-861. pdf

James Flynn (1999). Searching for Justice: The Discovery of IQ Gains Over Time American Psychologist researchgate

Toby Young (2015). The Fall of the Meritocracy. Quadrant online free

Mieke van Houtte (2017). Gender Differences in Context: The Impact of Track Position on Study Involvement in Flemish Secondary Education Sociology of Education open access

What is RTI? page

Successful in Quebec: here. Response to Intervention (RTI) is a multi-tier approach to the early identification and support of students with learning and behavior needs.

Getting older quicker. By Dave Thomson Educatio Datalab page

Moth of birth and achievement gaps.

The Question of Knowledge practicalities of a knowledge-based curriculum. Parents + Teachers for Excellence. pdf

Hans Luyten, Christine Merrell & Peter Tymms (2017): The contribution of schooling to learning gains of pupils in Years 1 to 6, School Effectiveness and School Improvement To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2017.1297312 pdf

Eton of the East End: Inspirational free school in one of London's most deprived areas sends 21 star pupils to train as doctors, dentists and vets. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4893462/Free-school-London-sends-pupils-Universities.html#ixzz4w4zGStaH Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook article

Nicholas G. Shakeshaft , Maciej Trzaskowski, Andrew McMillan, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Claire M. A. Haworth, Philip S. Dale, Robert Plomin (2017). Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16. Published: December 11, 2013 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341 open access

Richard E. Nisbett, Joshua Aronson, Clancy Blair, William Dickens, James Flynn, Diane F. Halpern, Eric Turkheimer (2012). Intelligence. New Findings and Theoretical Developments. American Psychologist, 67, 130-159 open access

Richard E. Nisbett (2013). Schooling makes you smarter. What teachers need to know about IQ. American Educator Spring, 10-39. pdf

Larry Cuban (2017). Scaling Up: The Story of East Side Prep (Part 2) bog

Rianne Kloosterman, Stijn Ruiter, Paul M. De Graaf, Gerbert Kraaykamp (2009). Parental education, children's performance and the transition to higher secondary education: trends in primary and secondary effects over five Dutch school cohorts (1965–99). First published: 20 May 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2009.01235.x [I have no access] abstract

Robert M. Hauser (2009). On "Quality and Equity in the Performance of Students and Schools" pdf

Slava Kalyuga & Anne-Marie Singh (2015). Rethinking the Boundaries of Cognitive Load Theory in Complex Learning Educational Psychology Review, 28, 831-852. abstract

Diane Reay (2017). Miseducation. Inequality, education and the working classes. Policy Press. isbn 9781447330653 info - info

Children as young as two grouped by ability in English nurseries The Guardian article

Angeline S. Lillard, Megan J. Heise, Eve M. Richey, Xin Tong, Alyssa Hart and Paige M. Bray (2017). Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study. Front. Psychol., 30 October 2017 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01783 open access

Gregory Clark (2014). The Son Also Rises : Surnames and the History of Social Mobility. Princeton University Press [eBook KB] [ch 7 Nature versus nurture pdf downloaded] How much of our fate is tied to the status of our parents and grandparents? How much does it influence our children? More than we wish to believe. While it has been argued that rigid class structures have eroded in favor of greater social equality, The Son Also Rises proves that movement on the soci.. wiki

David Didau (Dec 5, 2017). THOUGHT DEPENDS ON KNOWLEDGE blog

The Brain Basis of the Phonological Deficit in Dyslexia is Independent of IQ. Hiroko Tanaka and others (2011). Psychol Sci. 2011 Nov; 22(11): 1442–1451. open access

Keith E. Stanovich (2005). The future of a mistake: Will discrepancy measurement continue to make the learning disabilities field a pseudoscience? Learning Disability Quarterly, 28 103-106. pdf

October 02 2017 Program dramatically improves reading of at-risk students at an early age article

Cathy L. Watkins (1997). Project Follow Through: A Case Study of Contingencies Influencing Instructional Practices of the Educational Establishment. . Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. pdf

Karola Dillenburger (2012). Why reinvent the wheel? A behaviour analyst 's reflections on pedagogy for inclusion for students with intellectual and developmental disability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability 37(2):169-80 DOI10.3109/13668250.2012.685705 concept

FFT TERM OF BIRTH RESEARCH A pupil 's term and month of birth can have a significant effect on their attainment, progress and development. It can also have a major impact on your school 's results. Find out more and download an FFT Term of Birth report for your own school. page

William Dickens (2005). Genetic differences and school readiness. February 2005 The Future of Children 15(1):55-69. researchgate (complete issue)

Arthur R. Jensen (1987). The g Beyond Factor Analysis. In Royce R. Ronning, Jane C. Conoley, John A. Glover, and Joseph C. Witt (Eds.) (1987). The influence of cognitive psychology on testing. Buros-Nebraska Symposium on Measurement and Testing. Volume 3. Erlbaum. isbn 0898598982 open access

John Mighton (2003). The myth of ability. Nurturing mathematical talent in every child. Anansi. isbn 0887846939 info

Niall Bolger, Avshalom Caspi, Geraldine Downey & Martha Moorehause (Eds.): Persons in context. Developmental processes. Cambridge University Press. isbn 052135577x [a.o.: Sandra Scarr (1988). How genotypes and environments combine: development and individual differences. (217-244)]

Charles Murray (2008). Real education. Four Simple Truths for Bringing America 's Schools Back to Reality. Three Rivers Press. pdf

Unfair schooling.

Joanne Brown (1992). The definition of a profession. The authority of metaphor in the history of intelligence testing, 1890-1930. Princeton Universty Press. [als eBook in KB] site

Council for Responsible Genetics: GENETIC DETERMINISM web page

Pierre Bourdieu et Jean-Claude Passeron (1970). La reproduction. éléments pour une théorie du système d'enseignement. Les Éditions de Minuit. La reproduction. éléments pur une théorie dy système d'enseignement. Les éditions Minuit. reviewed 1972

Dylan Wiliam (2017). Learning and assessment: a long and winding road? Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Volume 24, 2017 - Issue 3: Assessment and Learning open access

Cinq idées que défend Stanislas Dehaene, l'éminence grise de Jean-Michel Blanquer 12/01/2018 France Culture web page

D. Esposito (1973). Homogeneous and heterogeneous ability grouping: Principal findings and implications for evaluating and designing more effective educational environments. Review of Educational Research, 43, 163-180.

Robert J. Sternberg & Linda Jarvin (2003). Alfred Binet's contributions as a paradigm for impact in psychology. Chapter 3 in B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.) (2003). Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Erlbaum.google.books [whole book] Also as chapter 5 in Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (2003): The anatomy of impact. What makes the great works of psychology great. American Psychological Association.

Dirk van Damme (23 januari 2018) tweet Slides of my keynote speech at the European @goal_project Conference, Brussels, 17 January 2018, on educational opportunities throughout the life-course, focusing on skills use and adult learning. slides

OECD Education Working Papers . Academic resilience: What schools and countries do to help disadvantaged students succeed in PISA http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/e22490ac-en read

Jorge Luis García, James J. Heckman, Anna L. Ziff (). Gender differences in the benefits of an influential early childhood program. Working Paper 23412 NBER pdf

Perry, Abecedarian etcetera?

Arthur J. Reynolds, Suh-Ruu Ou, Judy A. Temple (2018). A Multicomponent, Preschool to Third Grade Preventive Intervention and Educational Attainment at 35 Years of Age. JAMA Pediatrics, 2018; DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.4673 DOI

Inga Schwabe, Luc Janss and Stéphanie M. van den Berg (2017). Can We Validate the Results of Twin Studies? A Census-Based Study on the Heritability of Educational Achievement. Front. Genet. open access

Draadje Tim van der Zee Twitter

Douglas K.Detterman (2014). Introduction to the intelligence special issue on the development of expertise: is ability necessary? [Special issue on Ericsson's research] Intelligence, 45, July-August 1-5. [whole issue was temporarily open access] abstract

A. H. Halsey (Ed.) (1961). Ability and educational opportunity. OECD.

Dawn Foster (20 Feb 2018). Helping gifted children is all very well - but what about the rest? blog The Guardian

Raymond B. Cattell & H. J. Butcher (1968). The prediction of achievement and creativity. Bobbs-Merrill. lccc 67-18662

Raymond B. Cattell (1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. isbn 0395042755 archive.org [poor rendering of the text without the figures]

Alfred Binet & Théodore Simon (1916/1973 reprint). The development of intelligence in children. (The Binet-Simon Scale). Translated by Elizabeth S. Kite. Reprint: New York Arno Press. isbn 0405051350 online

Eric Amsel & K. Ann Renninger (Eds.) (1997). Change and development. Issues of theory, method, and application. LEA. 0805818251

A. Pluchino, A. E. Biondo, A. Rapisarda (2018). Talent vs Luck: the role of randomness in success and failure. arXiv:1802.07068v2 [physics.soc-ph] open

Maybe 'talent' can be shown to be distributed randomly (not genetically)? Would be a small sensation.

Drew Bailey, Greg J. Duncan, Tyler Watts, Doug Clement, Julie Sarama (2018). Risky Business: Correlation and Causation in Longitudinal Studies of Skill Development pdf

Robert J. Duncan, Sara A. Schmitt, Maura Burke, Megan M. McClelland (2018). Combining a kindergarten readiness summer program with a self-regulation intervention improves school readiness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly Volume 42, 1st Quarter 2018, Pages 291-300 open

Useful literature.

John Colombo & Jeffrey Fagen (Eds) (1990). Individual differences in infancy: Reliability, stability, prediction. Erlbaum. isbn 0805803696

Mary A. Jensen & Stacie G. Goffin (Eds) (1993). Visions of entitlement. The care and education of America's children. SUNY. isbn 0791416763 info

Sir W. H. Hadow (chair) (1924). Board of Education. Report of the consultative committee on psychological tests of educable capacity and their possible use in the public system of education. London: His Majesty's Stationary Office. paper The Committee's Report pp. 1-145. Appendices 146-238 a.o. by Cyril Burt. full text

Judith Blake (1989). Family size and achievement. University of California Press. isbn 0520062965 free online

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi & Reed Larson (1984). Being adolescent. Conflict and growth in the teenage years. Basic Books. isbn 0465006469

Beeman Phillips (1978). School, stress and anxiety. Theory, research and intervention. New York: Human Sciences Press. isbn 0877053243, 165 pp. hardcover , no dust jacket, insides clean and tight, very good-->

Gillian Pugh (ed.) (1992). Contemporary issues in the early years. Working collaboratively for children. London: Paul Chapman / National Children's Bureau. isbn 1853961736

Robert J. Sternberg & John Kolligian, Jr. (Eds) (1990). Competence considered. New Haven: Yale University Press. isbn 0300045670 9780300045673 info

Burton L. White, Jean Carew Watts, & others (1973 2nd,1978). Experience and environment. Major influences on the development of the young child. Prentice-Hall. Two volumes. isbn 0132948435 isbn 0132948192

Geneviève Paicheler (1988). The psychology of social influence. Cambridge University Press and Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme. isbn 0521309409 review

Cecil R. Reynolds & Randy W. Kamphaus (1990). Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: intelligence and achievement London: The Guilford Press. 089862391X

G. Révész (1952). Talent en genie. Grondslagen van een psychologie der begaafdheid. Leiden: Brill.

Dean Keith Simonton (1999). Origins of genius. Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Oxford University Press. isbn 0195128796

John Radford (1990). Child prodigies and exceptional early achievers. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. isbn 0745007511 archive.org

Why do disadvantaged schools tolerate poor behaviour? MARCH 11, 2018 / STEALINGBISCUITSISWRONG blog

Tom Bennett (2017). Creating a Culture: How school leaders can optimise behaviour. pdf

Softly Killing the Working Classes: the dangers of 'teaching' soft skills FEBRUARY 28, 2018 / STEALINGBISCUITSISWRONG blog

Robert J. Sternberg (1997). Thinking styles. Cambridge University Press. isbn 9780521553162 info

Benjamin S. Bloom (1976). Human characteristics and school learning.. McGraw-Hill. isbn 0070061173

Benjamin S. Bloom (1964). Stability and change in human characteristics. New York: Wiley. lccc 64-17133

Nancy Cantor & John F. Kihlstrom (1987). Personality and intelligence. Prentice-Hall. isbn 0136579663 later chapter [on social intelligence]

Lifetime intelligence and problem solving. I hope for an inroad to the problem how to describe social intelligence in daily life of grownups (e.g. Ch 6. Life tasks and problem-solving strategies). Expertise is an important concept here, as are declarative and procedural knowledge.

Robert J. Sternberg (1985). Beyond IQ. A triarchic theory of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. isbn 0521278910

Robert J. Sternberg (1988). The triarchic mind. A new theory of human intelligence. New York: Viking. isbn 0670803642 archive.org [inserted: Robert J. Sternberg, Bruce Torff & Elena Grigorenko (1998): Teaching for succesful intelligence raises school achievement. Phi Delta Kappan, May, 667-9 "The researchers describe a study that showed that an educational intervention based on the theory of successful intelligence improved school achievement, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments."]

Daniel Calhoun (1973). The intelligence of a people. Princeton University Press. isbn 0691046190

Robert Siegler, Judy DeLoache, Nancy Eisenberg (2006 2nd). How children develop. Worth Publishers. isbn 9780716795278

Rachel Brown-Chidsey & Kristina J. Andren (Eds.) (2013). Assessment for intervention. A problem-solving approach. Guilford. isbn 9781462506783

Ch.12: The role of intelligence testing in understanding students' academic problems.

The Current State of Scientific Knowledge on Pre-Kindergarten Effects. Consensus Statement from the Pre-Kindergarten Task Force. pdf

Cyril Burt (1921/1933). Mental and scholastic tests. London: P. S. King. UBL 3658 C 4 & HISPSY VIDE B 51 G 25 archive.org

Jerome Karabel and A. H. Halsey (Eds.) (1977). Power and ideology in education. New York: Oxford University Press. isbn 0195021398 info

Michael Young (2009). What are schools for? Chapter 1.1 in ?? pdf and another version

Robert J. Sternberg, Wendy M. Williams (Eds.) (1998). Intelligence, Instruction, and Assessment: Theory into Practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [UB Leiden PEDAG. 46.a.107]

M. Blenkin & A. V. Kelly (Eds.) (1992). Assessment in early childhood education. Paul Chapman. isbn 1853961531 info

Edward L. Thorndike (1904). Theory of mental and social measurements. New York: The Science Press. 1st impression of 1st edition [the second revised edition 1916 is available online https://archive.org/details/anintroductiont00thorgoog] archive.org 2nd edition 1916

Michael Young (1958). The rise of the meritocracy 1870 - 2033. An essay on education and equality. Thames and Hudson. 1st printing info

. Also annotations and more literature

Roel J. Bosker, Bert P. M. Creemers and Sam Stringfield (Eds.) (1999). Enhancing educational excellence, equity and efficiency. Evidence from evaluations of systems and schools in change. Kluwer. isbn 0792361385 preview

Scott T. Meier (1994). The chronic crisis in psychological measurement and assessment. A historical survey. Academic Press. isbn 0124884407 info

E. D. Hirsch, Jr. (2016). Why knowledge matters. Rescuing our children from failed educational theories. Harvard Education Press. blog [in Dutch] & reviewed [in Dutch]

Anders Ericsson & Robert Pool (2016). Peak. Secrets from the new science of expertise. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. isbn 9780544456235 http://www.hmhco.com/shop/books/Peak/9780544456235 reviewed by Dan Willingham, reviewed by Mirjam Neelen. . Ericsson & Pool interviewed EdWeek: Podcast CM 039: Anders Ericsson on Peak Performance: here. Deans for Impact: Deliberate practice 2017 pdf. & reviewed by myself.

G. A. Harrison & A. J. Boyce (Eds) (1972). The structure of human populations. Clarendon Press. isbn 0198571208

John H. Goldthorpe (2016). Social class mobility in modern Britain: changing structure, constant process. Journal of the British Academy, 4, 89–111. DOI 10.5871/jba/004.089 pdf

J. S. Hurt (1979). Elementary schooling and the working classes 1860-1918. Routledge & Kegan Paul. isbn 0710002750 info

Stephen Gorard & Nadia Siddiqui (2018). Grammar schools in England: a new analysis of social segregation and academic outcomes. British Journal of Sociology of Education open. See also this blog

Kieron J. Barclay (2018). The birth order paradox: Sibling differences in educational attainment. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Volume 54, April 2018, Pages 56-65 opn

W. H. G. Armytage (1970). Four Hundred Years of English Education. Cambridge at the University Press. isbn 0521075963 info

James Mill (1825). Education. Part of: Articles in the Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britannica (1825). public domain

Look for uses of 'intelligence'.

Scott L. Montgomery (1994). Minds for the making. The role of science in American education, 1750-1990. Guilford Press. isbn 0898621895

Douglas K. Detterman (2016). Education and Intelligence: Pity the Poor Teacher because Student Characteristics are more Significant than Teachers or Schools. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 19 https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2016.88 abstract & references

Specific Abilities in the Workplace: More Important Than g? Harrison J. Kell, Jonas W.B. Lang. Published: 12 April 2017 by MDPI in Journal of Intelligence , Volume 5; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020013 open

What Can We Learn from 'Not Much More than g'? Kevin Murphy (2017). Journal of Intelligence , Volume 5; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5010008 open

C. Muller (1993/2018). Parent involvement and academic achievement: An analysis of family resources available to the child. In B. Schneider & J. S. Coleman (Eds.), Parents, their children, and schools . San Francisco, CA: Westview Press pp. 77-113 annotation

Earl Hunt, Susanne Jaeggi (2013). Challenges for Research on Intelligence. Journal of Intelligence, 1, 36-54 open

Anik De Ribaupierre, Thierry Lecerf (2017). Intelligence and Cognitive Development: Three Sides of the Same Coin. Published: 13 April 2017 Journal of Intelligence open

Keith Stanovich (2014). Assessing Cognitive Abilities: Intelligence and More. Published: 12 February 2014 by MDPI in Journal of Intelligence opejn

Kenneth Arrow, Samuel Bowles & Steven Durlauf (Eds) (2000). Meritocracy and Economic Inequality Oxford University Press. isbn 0691004684

Sue Thomson (2018). Achievement at school and socioeconomic background - an educational perspective. npj science of learning open

Nicholas Martin (2018). Getting to the genetic and environmental roots of educational inequality. npj science of learningopen

Pankaj Sah, Michael Fanselow, Gregory J. Quirk, John Hattie, Jason Mattingley & Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa (2018). The nature and nurture of education npj science of learning open

Research on (schools applying) the Core Knowledge concept (E. D. Hirsch, Jr.). page

James Bowen (1981). A history of western education. Volume three, The modern West, Europe and the New World. Methuen and St Martin's Press. isbn 0416161308

Rosemary Crompton (1993). Class and stratification. An introduction to current debates. Cambridge: Polity Press. isbn 0745609473 info on 3rd edition

Denis P. Doyle & Bruce S. Cooper (Eds) (1988). Federal aid to the disadvantaged. What future for Chapter 1? The Falmer Press. isbn 1850003688

Chapter 1 is the new name for Lyndon Johnson's federal program Title I: compensatory education, improving the educational performance of disadvantaged children and young people. Larry Cuban contributes a chapter: 'The ways that schools are: Lessons for reformers'. "Policymakers need both historical and organizational perspectives to inform decisions made on behalf of those without power to act, children, for example." It is not clear what this book ca contribute to the cause of fair schooling, at one point I'll have to skim it for useful info on practices, ideologies, possibilities. The same with books by Diane Ravitch, of course.

Sharon Lynn Kagan (Ed.) (1991). The care and education of America's young children: Obstacles and opportunities. Ninetieth Yearbook of The National Society for the Study of Education.

Robert J. Sternberg (2010). College Admissions for the 21st Century Harvard University Press. isbn 9780674048232 review

My summary: this is an intriguing exercise in fair college admissions. That is why I mention the book here.

Pam Sammons (1989). School effectiveness and school organization. pp 219-254 in Lotty Eldering & Jo Kloprogge (Eds) (1989). Different cultures, same school. Ethnic minority children in Europe. Swets & Zeitlinger. isbn 9026509898

Natalie Wexler (2018). Why American Students Haven't Gotten Better at Reading in 20 Years. Schools usually focus on teaching comprehension skills instead of general knowledge—even though education researchers know better. article

Penny Hauser-Cram, Donald E. Pierson, Deborah Klein Walker, and Terrence Tivnan (1991). Early education in the public schools. Lessons from a comprehensive birth-to-kindergarten program. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. isbn 1555423280 [The Brookline Early Education Project]

Mark Enser (April, 2018). Knowledge in the classroom. blog

Ben Wilbrink (tweet April 2018). There is no such thing as deliberate practice in generic problem solving. Or generic understanding of text. Generic creativity. Subjecting children to these fictions is kind of criminal, robbing their time and fair chances of an education. blog

Theodore Brameld (1957/1973). Cultural foundations of education. An interdisciplinary exploration. Greenwood Press. isbn 0837169046

Democratic education. Is it education's task to save the societal status quo? Evidently not.

Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis (1976). Schooling in capitalist America. Educational reform and the contradictions of economic life. Routledge & Kegan Paul. isbn 0465072305

Classic. (i.a.: Education, inequality, and the meritocracy - the origins of mass public education)

Merry White (1987). The Japanese educational challenge. A commitment to children. London: Collier Macmillan. isbn 002933800X

Another culture, other conceptions of ability and effort in school.

James S. Coleman (Ed.) (1990). Equality and achievement in education. Westview Press. isbn 0813377919

Clyde Chitty (Ed.) (1991). Post-16 education. Studies in access and achievement. Kogan Page. isbn 0749400978

Irwin A. Hyman 1990). Reading, writing, and the hickory stick. The appalling story of physical and psychological abuse in American schools. Lexington Books. isbn 0669219908

Britta Jonsson (Ed.) (1995). Studies on youth and schooling in Sweden. Stockholm: Institute of Education Press. isbn 9176563618

Israel Scheffler (1985). Of human potential. An essay in the philosophy of education. Routledge & Kegan Paul. isbn 0710205716 — 141 pp., cloth, dust jacket,-->

Robert E. Slavin (Ed.) (1996). Education for all. Swets & Zeitlinger. isbn 9026514735 Slavin publications

Michael A. Rebell & Arthur R. Block (1985). Equality and education. Federal civil rights enforcement in the New York City School system. Princeton University Press. isbn 0691076928

Bert Creemers, Ton Peters & Dave Reynolds (Eds.) (1989). School effectiveness and school improvement. Proceedings of the Second International Congress Rotterdam 1989. Swets & Zeitlinger. isbn 902651008X

David R. Olson & Nancy Torrance (Eds) (1996). The handbook of education and human development. New models of learning, teaching, and schooling Blackwell. isbn 1557864608 info

Kevin Marjoribanks (1979). Families and their learning environments. An empirical analysis. Routledge & Kegan Paul. isbn 0710001673

David E. Lavin & David Hyllegard (1996). Changing the odds. Open admissions and the life chances of the disadvantaged. Yale University Press. isbn 0300063288

Jusaku Minari, Kyle B. Brothers and Michael Morrison (2018). Tensions in ethics and policy created by National Precision Medicine Programs. Human Genomics open

Laura Van den Broeck, Jannick Demanet, Mieke Van Houtte (2018). Unmet Goals of Tracking: Within-track Heterogeneity of Students' Expectations about the Future. Sociological Perspectives abstract & references

Daphna Bassok Chloe R. Gibbs Scott Latham (2018). Preschool and Children's Outcomes in Elementary School: Have Patterns Changed Nationwide Between 1998 and 2010? Child Development abstract

Ben Williamson (April 30, 2018). A biosocial view on precision education. We need a conversation about genetics, neuroscience and precision education. blog

Ian J. Deary and John Maltby (2013) on psychology's return to its practical roots. Intelligence and individual differences. The Psychologist, 26, 30-33 blog

Tom Clynes (7 September 2016). How to raise a genius: lessons from a 45-year study of super-smart children. A long-running investigation of exceptional children reveals what it takes to produce the scientists who will lead the twenty-first century. (via Toby Young) [The Juian Stanley cohort study] article

H. Hale Bellot (1929). University College London 1826-1926. University of London Press.

Walter Ellis (1994). The Oxbridge conspiracy. How the ancient universities have kept their stranglehold on the establishment. London: Michael Joseph. isbn 0718137483

A. Myrick Freeman, III (1993). The measurement of environmental and resource values. Theory and methods. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future. isbn 0915707691 [there is a 2014 new edition] info

Why is this important for our subject: just take a look at the table of contents. E.g. 'Valuing longevity and health'; if it is true that education contributes to a longer and healthier life, it is of some import to be able to quantify this.

Mary Carpenter (1851/1968 facs.). Reformatory schools for the children of the perishing and dangerous classes, and for juvenile offenders. Gilpin/Woburn archive.or

Detlef K. Müller, Fritz Ringer & Brian Simon (Eds) (1987). The rise of the modern educational system. Structural change and social reproduction 1870-1920. Cambridge University Press. info

Fritz Ringer (1979). Education and society in modern Europe. Indiana University Press. isbn 0253319293

Margaret E. Bryant (1986). The London experience of secondary education. The Athlone Press. isbn 0485113023

Joan N. Burstyn (1980). Victorian education and the ideal of womanhood. Croom Helm, isbn 0709901399

Steven Brint & Jerome Karabel (1990). The diverted dream: community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900-1985. Oxford University Press. isbn 0195048156

Burton R. Clark (1960). The open door college. A case study. McGraw-Hill. lccc 59-14440

['cooling-out function, p. ix]

R. D. Anderson (1989). Education and Opportunity in Victorian Scotland. Schools & Universities Edinburgh University Press. isbn 085224617X [boek in KB]

James T. Flynn (1988). The University Reform of Tsar Alexander I, 1802-1835. The Catholic University of America Press. isbn 0813206537

tweet of the following:

Joanna Williams (8 May, 2018). Genes and background do not determine children's future. Education can set kids free. blog

Ivor Goodson (1993). School subjects and curriculum change. Studies in curriculum history. The Falmer Press. isbn 075070098X

Prefaced by Peter McLaren.

Sandra Horvath-Peterson (1984). Victor Duruy & French education. Liberal reform in the Second Empire. Louisiana State University Press. isbn 0807111570

Derek Bok (1996). The state of the nation. Government and the quest for a better society. Harvard University Press. isbn 0674292103

Joseph F. Kett (1994). The Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties. From Self-Improvement to Adult Education in America, 1750-1990. Stanford University Press. isbn 0804722978 info

Christopher Jencks & David Riesman (1968). The academic revolution. Garden City, Doubleday. lccc 68-15597 info

T. L. Jarman (1951/1963). Landmarks in the history of education. English education as part of the European tradition. John Murray.

Paul William Kingston & Lionel S. Lewis (Eds) (1990). The high-status track: studies of elite schools and stratification. State University of New York Press. isbn 0791400115 info

US intellectual elites, American aristocracy and class society.

Thomas Pole (1814, 1816/1969 reprint). A history of the origin and progress of adult schools. Woburn Books/Kelley.

Jade M. Jenkins , Greg J. Duncan , Anamarie Auger , Marianne Bitler , Thurston Domina , Margaret Burchinal , Boosting School Readiness: Should Preschool Teach- ers Target Skills or the Whole Child?, Economics of Education Review (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2018.05.001 abstract

Arthur G. Powell (1980). The Uncertain Profession. Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority. Harvard University Press. isbn 0674781228 info

Marcia Graham Synnott (1979). The half-opened door: discrimination and admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900-1970. Greenwood Press. isbn 0313206171 [inserted: photocopy of Richard Farnum (1997). Elite college discrimination and the limits of conflict theory. Harvard Educational Review, 67, 507-532] info. Article by Marcia G. Synnott 1982 'The Half-Opened Door: Researching Admissions Discrimination at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton' American Archivist/Vol. 45, No. 2/Spring 1982 open access

For the understanding of fair (primary, secondary) schooling it'll prove profitable to study elite education's history, e.g. Marcia G. Synnott 1982 'The Half-Opened Door: Researching Admissions Discrimination at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton' open access [tweeted this]

E. N. Suleiman (1978). Elites in French society. The politics of survival. Princeton University Press. isbn 0691075972 info

tweeted this

Ezra N. Suleiman (1974). Politics, power, and bureaucracy in France. The administrative elite. Princeton University Press. isbn 0691975522 info

Ezra Suleiman & Henri Mendras (Dir.) (1995). Le recrutement des élites en Europe. Paris: La Découverte. isbn 2707124559

Rianne Kloosterman Stijn Ruiter Paul M. De Graaf Gerbert Kraaykamp (2009). Parental education, children's performance and the transition to higher secondary education: trends in primary and secondary effects over five Dutch school cohorts (1965–99). British Journal of Sociology https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2009.01235.x abstract

Team Members and Contributors as listed on equalchances.org (2018). Inequality of opportunity and social mobility: a comparative study pdf

Mary Sturt (1967). The education of the people. A history of primary education in England and Wales in the nineteenth century. Routledge and Kegan Paul. isbn 0710021615

Leuk boek, uitgebreide citaten

Elliot Eisner (Ed.) (1985). Learning and Teaching. The Ways of Knowing. 84th yearbook NSSE. issn 00775762

Richard Nisbett and Lee Ross (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. isbn 0134451309 reviewed

Pierre Bourdieu (1966). La transmission de l'héritage culturel - Les inégalités devant l'é - l'inégalité devant l'école comme principe de l'inégalité devant la culture. pp 383-420 dans: Pierre Bourdieu, Alain Darbel, and others (1966). Le partage des bénéfices. Paris: Les Editions de Minuit.

Robert Erikson & John H. Goldthorpe, J. H. (1992). The constant flux. A study of class mobility in industrial societies. Clarendon Press. isbn 0198273835

Post WW II

By Stephen Machin, Sandra McNally, and Martina Viarengo (2018). Changing How Literacy Is Taught: Evidence on Synthetic Phonics. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 10 (2): 217–241 https://doi.org/10.1257/pol.20160514 open

Donald MacKenzie (1979). Eugenics and the rise of mathematical statistics in Britain. In John Irvine, Jay Wiles & Jeff Evans (Eds.) (1979). Demystifying social statistics. (39-50) Pluto Press. isbn 0861040686 [niet online beschikbaar]

Martin Carnoy & Hanry M. Levin (1985). Schooling and work in the democratic state. Stanford University Press. isbn 0804712425

Heiner Rindermann & David Becker (2018). FLynn-effect and economic growth: Do national increases in intelligence lead to increases in GDP? Intelligence, 69, 87-93. abstract

J. E. Floud (Ed.), A. H. Halsey & F. M. Martin (1956). Social class and educational opportunity. Heinemann review

Herman G. van de Werfhorst, Tony Tam, Shavit & Hyunjoon Park (2017). A Positional Model of Intergenerational Educational Mobility: Crucial Tests Based on 35 Societies. open

Key publication.

Paul Davis Chapman (1988). Schools as sorters. Lewis M. Terman, Applied Psychology, and the Intelligence Testing Movement, 1890-1930. New York University Press. isbn 0814714366

Ronald M. Glassman (1995). The middle class and democracy in socio-historical perspective. Brill. isbn 9004103597 info


Gary S. Becker, Scott Duke Kominers, Kevin M. Murphy & Jörg L. Spenkuch (2018). A Theory of Intergenerational Mobility. SSRN open

Dael Wolfle (1971). The uses of talent. — Princeton University Press. isbn 0691086036

Anne C. Petersen & Jeylan T. Mortimer (eds) (1994). Youth unemployment and society. Cambridge University Press. isbn 052144473X info

J. R. Pole (1993 revised edition). The Pursuit of Equality in American History. University of California Press. isbn 0520079876

June Purvis (1989). Hard lessons. The lives and education of working-class women in nineteenth-century England. Polity Press. isbn 0745606636

Daniel P. Resnick (Ed.) (1983). Literacy in historical perspective. Washington Library of Congress. (For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402). isbn 0844404101.

Clark Nardinelli (1990). Child labor and the industrial revolution. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. isbn 0253339715

Andrew Miles & David Vincent (eds.) (1993). Building European society. Occupational change and social mobility in Europe, 1840-1940. Manchester University Press. isbn 071903499X

Piet Thoenes (1962/1966). The élite in the welfare state. Faber & Faber. Edited by J. A. Banks. (Translation by J. E. Brigham from the Dutch: De elite in de verzorgingsstaat in dbnl). Leiden: Stenfert Kroese, 1962). Ook in dbnl.nl

E. T. Bell (1937/1953). Men of Mathematics. A Pelican Book A276 A277

Might be interesting for the romanticism and beliefs of its author-mathematician, as well as those of the mathematicians he writes on. Just an example, on Bernhard Riemann and his inborn mathematical genius:

Allen Buchanan, Dan W. Brock, Norman Daniels & Daniel Winkler (2000). From chance to choice. Genetics and justice. Cambridge UP. isbn 0521660017 info

Gry Oftedal (2005). Heritability and genetic causation. Philosophy of Science, 72, 699-709. pdf

Key publication.

R. C. Lewontin (1974). The Analysis of Variance and the Analysis of Causes. Am JHum Genet 26, 400-411.

Key publication. See also Oftedal_2005

R. D. Rosenkrantz (1978). Distributive justice. In C. A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (Eds.) (1978). Foundations and applications of decision theory. Volume II: Epistemic and social applications. (pp. 91-120). Reidel. isbn 9027708444 preview

C. A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (Eds.) (1978). Foundations and applications of decision theory. Volume II: Epistemic and social applications. (pp. 91-120). Reidel. isbn 9027708444 info

Aamna Mohdin (June12, 2018)). Researchers discovered hundreds of ads for runaway slaves in 18th-century Britain. Quartzpage

Humans for sale, 18th entury England.

OED (2018). In which countries do the most highly qualified and experienced teachers teach in the most difficult schools? open

Ben Williamson (June 18, 2018). Scientists Seek Genetic Data to Personalize Education blog

Stuart Ritchie & Elliot Tucker-Drob (2018). How much does education improve intelligence? A meta-analysis. Psychological Science abstract also a preprint

Earl Hunt (1995). The role of intelligence in modern society American Scientist, 83, 356-368. text (without figures; formulas scrambled)

Somewhat outdated, the first sections on intelligence are still very useful though. Of course, the Bell curve (Herrnstein & Murray)

Earl Hunt (1996). When should we shoot the messenger? Issues involving cognitive testing, public policy, and the law. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2(3/4), 486-505. abstract

Be sure to note that this article is about the question of the use of IQ-scores in education being defensible or not: causal relations must be established, correlatios are just not sufficient. Key publication.

Patricia A. Carpenter, Marcel Adam Just, and Peter Shell (1990). What One Intelligence Test Measures: A Theoretical Account of the Processing in the Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Psychological Review, 97pdf

Be aware that the authors do not include Flynn's results on what others named the Flynn effect, the rise of intelligence test scores, especially those of the Raven. The Flynn effect does not square with the idea that the Raven tests for fluid intelligence.

Earl Hunt (1995). Will We Be Smart Enough? A Cognitive Analysis of the Coming Workforce [UB Leiden Closed Stack 3   6272 E 18 requested] info

Flynn J.R. (2015) The March of Reason: What Was Hidden in Our Genes. In: Goldstein S., Princiotta D., Naglieri J. (eds) Handbook of Intelligence. Springer, New York, NY https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1562-0_29 abstract

If you have no access to this article [I do not have access myself, regrettably, neither is the book available at the library of Leiden University] you might try to search googl.books goo.gl/vRnMGV using the first sentence of the abstract below. The article is adapted from material in James R. Flynn (2013) Intelligence and human progress: The story of what was hidden in our genes. Elsevier. Key publication (key theory: Dickens)

Alfred Russel Wallace (Sept. 1890). Human selection. Fortnightly Review, p.325-337 ff. webpage

Robert J. Sternberg (2003). Wisdom, intelligence, and creativity synthesized. Cambridge University Press. [UB Leiden PSYCHO C6-100]

Douglas B. Downey & Dennis J. Condron (2016). Fifty years since the Coleman Report: Rethinking the relationship between schools and inequality. Sociology of Education, 89, 207-220. abstract [Rejoinder—2016. Two Questions for Sociologists of Education: A Rejoinder Sociology of Education 89(3): 234-235. ] . Jencks commented on the article abstract.

Key publication

Lesley A. Jacobs (2016). Dealing fairly with winners and losers in school: Reframing how to think about equality of educational opportunity 50 years after the Coleman Report. Sociology of Education, 14 issue: 3, page(s): 313-332 https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878516680409 abstract

Key publication "Framing equality of educational opportunity around fairness"

Simon Gunn & Rachel Bell (2002). Middle Classes, their rise and sprawl. Cassell. isbn 0304361399

A characteristic that in itself already explains a lot of the difficulties of lower class children to get a fair education (competitive middle class parents—collateral damage: frustrating fair schooling for lower class children)::

Stephen J. Ceci (Guest Ed.) (1996). IQ in society. Special theme of Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2 contents [No access? Try sci-hub, using the DOI addresses]

tweet [use @threadreaderapp to save the whole thread (might not succeed in all cases, however)]

A. H. Halsey, Jean Floud, and C. Arnold Anderson (Eds.) (1961). Education, economy, and society. A reader in the sociology of education. New York: Free Press. LCCC 61-9167.

B. F. M. Bakker, J. Dronkers en G. W. Meijnen (Eds) (1989). Educational opportunities in the welfare state. Nijmegen: ITS, 1989. isbn 9063706561.

Allan Bloom (1990). Giants and dwarfs. Essays 1960-1990. New York: Simon and Schuster. isbn 0671707779

William B. Schrader (Ed.) (1981). Admissions testing and the public interest. Proceedings of the 1980 ETS Invitational Conference. New Directions for Testing and Measurement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. isbn 875899718

Nathaniel H. Hartshorne (Ed.) (1977). Educational measurement and the law. Proceedings of the 1977 ETS Invitational Conference. Educational testing Service. lccc 47-11220. scan

Patrick Suppes (Ed.). (1978). Impact of Research on Education: Some Case Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Education. No isbn [Een samenvatting van 110 blz is afzonderlijk gepubliceerd]

John B. Carroll (1978). On the theory-practice interface in the measurement of intellectual abilities. pp 1-106 in Patrick Suppes (Ed.). (1978). Impact of Research on Education: Some Case Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Education.

Samuel Messick (1981). Evidence and ethics in the evaluation of tests. open

Lee J. Cronbach (1975). Five decades of public controversy over mental testing. American Psychologist, 30, 1-14.

H. Putnam (1973). Reductionism and the nature of psychology. Cognition, 2, 131-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(72)90033-9 preview

Carroll (1978, p. 82-83, see above) quotes a long passage from the section 4. 'Intelligence'.

Wouter Schakel and Armen Hakhverdian (2018). Ideological congruence and socio-economic inequality. European Political Science Review, 10, 441-465 temp. open

Lynn Thorndike (1940). Elementary and Secondary Education in the Middle Ages. Speculum, 15, 400-408. pdf JStor

Jerome Karabel (2005) The chosen. The hidden history of admission and exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Houghton Mifflin Company. isbn 9780618574582 reviewed by Frank Dobbin.

Explicitly unfair admissions (Ivy League) in the US.

William W. Cooley & Paul R. Lohnes (1976). Evaluation Research in Education. Irvington Publishers. isbn 0470013982

A rich book, I must return to it later. Its subject is evaluation on a national scale, and especially its methodological issues (traps and misunderstandings), illustrated by the controversies about, for example, the Coleman Report 1966. Equality is the main theme, in a sense.

F. Allan Hanson (1993). Testing testing. Social consequences of the examined life. Berkeley: University of California Press. isbn 0520080602 open access

Key publication tweet

Denny Borsboom & Lisa D. Wijsen (2017) Psychology’s atomic bomb, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 24:3, 440-446, DOI: 10.1080/0969594X.2017.1333084 pdf

A. H. Halsey, A. F. Heath & J. M. Ridge (1980). Origins and destinations. Family, Class, and Education in Modern Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press. isbn 0198272243

The Oxford Social Mobility Project.

OECD (1975). Education, inequality and life chances [2 vols.] [opzoeken]

Herbert H. Hyman, Charles R. Wright and John Shelton Reed (1975). The enduring effects of education. University of Chicago Press. isbn 0226365506

Het bijzondere van dit onderzoek is dat gebruik is gemaakt van nationale steekproeven uit de volwassenenpopulatie. Dat is een idee dat ik ook wel eens heb geopperd, om niet te starten vanaf school en dan in het te volgen cohort veel deelnemers te verliezen, maar vanuit volwassenen en dan terug te vragen. Trouwens: ze vinden positieve resultaten van onderwijs, hoe meer onderwijs, des te meer dat opbrengt. Maar dat was te verwachten, toch?

Derek Fraser (1973/1984 2nd edition). The evolution of the British welfare state. A history of social policy since the industrial revolution. Macmillan. isbn 0333359992

Penelope Weston (Ed.) (1991). Assessment of pupil achievement: motivation and school success. Report of the educational research workshop held in Liège 12-15 september. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger. isbn 9026511477

A Council of Europe research workshop. It is dated, of course, yet the book may elucidate the measure of sensitivity to fairness problems in education / assessment.

John B. Carroll (1993). Human cognitive abilities. Cambridge UP. [UB Leiden PSYCHO C6.1.-102 geleend ] [Zie ook Spearrit 1996] info

Donald Spearrit (1996). Carroll's model of cognitive abilities: Educational implications. International Journal of Educational Research, 25, number 2, 107-198. info

Jeannie Oakes (2005 2nd ed.). Keeping track. How schools structure inequality. Yale University Press. isbn 0300108303 (new preface, extra chapters discussing the 'tracking wars' of the last 20 years) info

John B. Carroll (2005). The Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities. In D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues (pp. 69-76). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press. [UB Leiden PSYCHO P4.1.2.-91 ]

Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, Melissa Osborne Groves (Eds.) (2005). Unequal chances. Family background and economic success. Princeton UP. [UB Leiden Sociol N11-161] info & Introduction pdf

Christian Albrekt Larsen (2013). The rise and fall of social cohesion. Oxford UP. [UB Leiden Sociol N11-177] info

Social constructivism, regrettably.

Scott G. McNall (2016). The problem of social inequality. Why it destroys democracy, threatens the planet, and what we can do about it. Routledge. [UB Leiden Sociol N10-50] info

Will Atkinson (2010). Class, individualization and late modernity. In search of the reflexive worker. Palgrave Macmillan. [Sociol N11-173] info

The politics of social psychology. Crawford, Jarret T. editor.; Jussim, Lee J. editor. NewYork : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group 2018 [UB Leiden PSYCHO G1.0.-149 nog lenen] info/contents

G. M. Wilson and Kremer J. Hoke (1920). How to measure. New York: The Macmillan Company. [two fold-out grading scales (spelling, drawing)] full view

Test optimism in 1920, see its preface.

Sjerp Willem van der Ploeg (1992). The expansion of secondary and tertiary education in the Netherlands. Proefschrift. Nijmegen: ITS. isbn 9063708947 open access

Ross D. Boylan (1993). The effect of the number of diplomas on their value. Sociology of Education, 66, 206-221 preview

Jonathan J. B. Mijs & Bowen Paulle (forthcoming 2018). The Burden of Acting Wise: Sanctioned School Success and Ambivalence. about Hard Work at an Elite School in the Netherlands. Intercultural Education, 27. prepubication

Alan Peshkin (2001). Permissible advantage? The moral consequences of elite schooling. Lawrence Erlbaum. isbn 0805824669 info

Robert C. Nichols (1979). Policy implications of the IQ controversy. pp 3-46 in Lee S. Shulman (Ed.) (1979). Review of research in education volume 6 1978. Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock Publishers. isbn 0875812392 preview

Use for references only, after all it is a review of eductional research touching on the theme.

Susanne Rijken (1999). Educational expansion and status attainment. A cross-national and over-time comparison. proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht. isbn 903931800x, 244 blz.-->

Herman G. Van de Werfhorst and Jonathan J.B. Mijs (2010). Achievement Inequality and the Institutional Structure of Educational Systems: A Comparative Perspective. Annu. Rev. Sociol., 36, 407-428. pdf

Key publication for the sociological touch.

Noelle Bisseret (1979). Education, class language and ideology. Routledge & Kegan Paul. isbn 0710001185

Bisseret is psychologist, has been a student of Basil Bernstein. Intriguing content, deserves some study.

Claude Grignon (1971). L'ordre des choses. Les fonctions sociales de l'enseignement technique. Les Éditions de Minuit.

beroepsonderwijs in Frankrijk 60er jaren, door sociologische bril

Roger Price (1987). A social history of nineteenth century France. Hutchinson. isbn0091732018

Quite interesting Chapter 8 'Education' pp 307-356

L. S. Hearnshaw (1964). A short history of British psychology 1840 - 1940. Methuen.

Ed Yong (July 23, 2018). An Enormous Study of the Genes Related to Staying in School. Researchers have found 1,271 gene variants associated with years of formal education. That’s important, but not for the obvious reasons. The Atlantic Science article

I have yet to follow up this. Others did already:

  • Wim Köhler (23 juli 2018). Heel veel genen voor schoolsucces gevonden nrc
    In 2013 vonden ze de eerste drie plaatsen op het DNA die invloed hebben, bij onderzoek onder ruim 100.000 mensen. Dat was het eerste onderzoek, gepubliceerd in Science, waarbij met betrouwbare methoden sociale kenmerken aan erfelijke eigenschappen werden gekoppeld. In 2016 volgde de vondst van 76 DNA-locaties uit de analyse van de erfelijke informatie van 400.000 mensen. Nu is er de uitbreiding naar 1,1 miljoen mensen.
    Onderzoeker Philipp Koellinger, betrokken bij alle drie de scholingsduuronderzoeken, nu verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, zei al in 2013 in NRC Handelsblad over die eerste publicatie van drie genen: „Er zijn geen allesbepalende genen. Genetische selectie, bijvoorbeeld voor een schoolopleiding, kan dus in werkelijkheid niet.”

  • Emma Smith & Stephen Gorard (2006). Pupils' views on equity in schools Compare:A Journal of Comparative and International Education. 36, issue 1. abstract

    Ben Williamson (July, 2018) Genetics, big data science, and postgenomic education research. blog

    Ben Wilbrink (July 27, 2018) The idea of intelligence and the idea of heritability of intelligence are ghosts from the change of the century, the 19th century that is ;-) Education took over their appearances; now we tend to believe the ghosts' story because the data seem to prove it. #selffulfillingproph tweet

    Mainstream Science on Intelligence WikipediA

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