Progressivism, its roots, development, and present-day manifestations


E. D. Hirsch, Jr. (2016). The origins of natural-development theories in education. In his ‘Why knoeledge matters’, 193-208.


Ben Wilbrink (mei 2016). The echo chamber of progressivist ideas, also in Dutch Platform Education 2032 report? blog


Ben Wilbrink (mei 2016). Razend populaire ideeën over onderwijs — progressivisme — blijken 19e-eeuwse romantiek. BlendEd #2, 70-77. opiniestuk




Progressivism: its contents, sources, and evidence





Greg Ashman (Jan 2, 2016) on progressivism here

Horatio Speaks (Jan 1, 2016) on the traditional - progressive debate being ‘boring’ here

Greg Ashman (Dec 31, 2015) on the UK debate between traditionalism and progressivism in education here



Tom Bennett (2016). Opening speech ReserchEd Amsterdam. website




Paul W. Bennett (Feb 13, 2011). The ‘School Change’ Wizards: What Drives Michael Fullan and his Disciples? Educhatter’s blog

George Thompson (). Ontario advisor Fullan teamed with Pastorek in New Orleans reform: charter schools on Ontario’s ‘next horizon’. blog


Michael Fullan (2013) on Ontarios reform successes blog edweek




Joop Berding (1999). De participatie-pedagogiek van John Dewey. Proefschrift Vrije Universiteit. isbn 9090131523

Joop Berding (xxxx). John Dewey over opvoeding, onderwijs en burgerschap. Een keuze uit zijn werk. SWP. info




Chomsky: see, for example, Paul Griffiths (2009). The Distinction Between Innate and Acquired Characteristics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy




Jan van de Craats (2008). Waarom Daan en Sanne niet kunnen rekenen. Zwartboek rekenonderwijs. pdf




Kieran Egan (2002). Getting it wrong from the beginning. Our progressivist inheritance from Herbert Spencer, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget. New Haven: Yale University Press. isbn 0300094337 info

Kieran Egan (not dated). Getting it wrong from the beginning. The mismatch between school and children's minds. webpage




K. Anders Ericsson (Ed.) (2009). Development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal Learning Environments. Cambridge University Press. isbn 9780521740081 [in Koninklijke Bibliotheek als eBook, word vriend] info




Michael Fullan (). Leading in a culture of change. Personal action guide and workbook. Case example: National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy.

Michael Fullan interviewed YouTube [interview on his new book Stratosphere] I have made a partial transcript:




David C. Geary (1995). Reflections of evolution and culture in children's cognition. Implications for mathematical development and instruction. American Psychologist, 50, 24-36. pdf [Biologically primary and biologically secondary abilities]




Tim Kautz, James J. Heckman, Ron Diris, Bas ter Weel, Lex Borghans (2014). Fostering and Measuring Skills. Improving Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success. OECD Education Working Papers. get pdf




Stellan Ohlsson (2011). Deep Learning: How the Mind Overrides Experience. Cambridge University Press. infor




Platform Onderwijs-2032 (Paul Schnabel, voorzitter) website




Sir Ken Robinson & Lou Aronica (2009). Het element. Als passie en talent samenkomen. Het Spectrum. isbn 9789049100261




Bea Ros (2009). Staartdelen of happen? Een pittig tweegesprek over rekenen tussen Marja van den Heuvel-Panhuizen en Jan van de Craats. Didaktief nr 1, 2: 4-5. pdf




Erci Sheninger (2016). Interview door Erik Meester. BlendEd, nr 1, 21-25. website




Elizabeth Spelke website




Herbert Spencer (1928 reprint). Essays on Education and kindred subjects. Dent. Gutenberg download




André Tricot & John Sweller (2014). Domain-specific knowledge and why teaching generic skills does not work. Educational Psychology Review preview & concept


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John Dewey (1930). How Much Freedom in New Schools? New Republic, 9 July 1930, 204-206. Reprinted in Jo Ann Boydston (Ed.) (1984). John Dewey. Volume 5: 1929-1930. Essays 319-325. Southern Illinois University Press. scan



In this article Dewey criticizes the progressives in education, without taking leave of what he himself regards the kernel of progressivism.


Blended #1, bevat gedachtegoed dat herkenbaar is als progressivisme



Interview Eric Sheninger. New Milford High School.

Wat scholen vooral doen, is hun leerlingen voorbereiden op school, terwijl we hen eigenlijk moeten voorbereiden op het leven in de echte wereld.

21


Daar zijn duurzame veranderingsstrategieën voor nodig die zich richten op de behoeftes van de leerling, niet op het systeem.

21


richt je op het gene waar leraren en schoolleiders voor opgeleid zijn: leerlingen verzekeren van ontwikkeling.

22


Denk aan het aansluiten bij de belevingswereld van de leerlingen, het versterken van de actieve input van leerlingen, het verrijken van de leeromgeving, het vergroten van eigenaarschap en het dragen van verantwoordelijkheid voor het eigen leerproces.

23


Ik noem ze in mijn boek ‘de essential skills’, denk aan creatief- en probleemoplossend vermogen, ict-geletterdheid, communicatie en globaal burgerschap. Daar hoort ook een ‘mindset’ bij, leerlingen moeten een ondernemende houding ontwikkelen en een positieve digitale voetafdruk creëren.

24


We moeten het gesprek aangaan over wat we graag voor gedrag willen zien bij leerlingen. Als we ons blijven richten op ‘traditionele’ opbrengsten zoals het toetsen van feitenkennis zullen we nooit weten of we succesvol zijn geweest in de verandering van ons onderwijs. Er moeten barrières doorbroken worden, er moet een cultuur geschapen worden waarin leerlingen de kans krijgen om hun ontwikkeling te laten zien.

24


Als ik door scholen loop zie ik nog weinig leerlingen die zich echt eigenaar en daarmee verantwoordelijk voelen voor hun eigen leerproces.

24


Leraren kunnen leerlingen uitdagen om vaardigheden toe te passen in informele omgevingen, bijvoorbeeld in een ‘Makerspace’. Daar moet je niet eindeloos over praten maar plannen, organiseren. Daarin kunnen ze werken aan projecten en (onderbewust) bezig zijn met de ontwikkeling van hun probleemoplossend vermogen, samenwerking en communicatie. We moeten dit soort praktijken zichtbaar en begrijpelijk maken voor elke leraar zodat zij zelf kunnen zien hoe leerlingen echt leren. Zelfs ouders willen vaak dat kinderen op dezelfde manier les krijgen als zij zelf, wij hebben de taak om hen te overtuigen dat het beter moet en kan.

24


Leeromgevingen zullen meer adaptief worden, gepersonaliseerd en gericht op de ontwikkelingen van competenties. Cijfers gaan er steeds minder toe doen. Ik zeg niet dat de leerling meer centraal komt te staan, maar dat leerlingen steeds meer verantwoordelijkheid gaan tonen voor hun eigen leerproces. Leraren zijn daarin steeds meer faciliterend, zij gaan in cocreatie nieuwe kennis ontwikkelen en dan bedenken hoe dat toegepast kan worden. Als scholen zich niet aan deze ontwikkelingen aanpassen, door zich bijvoorbeeld enkel te blijven richten op kennisoverdracht, zullen ze zo irrelevant wordend dat leerlingen gewoonweg niet meer komen opdagen.

25




J. E. Stone (1996). Developmentalism: An Obscure but Pervasive Restriction on Educational Improvement. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 4 Number 8 April 21 free access




Vincent Stolk (2016). Moderne onderwijsdoelen uit 1860. Didactief blog




Kieran Egan (2002). Getting it wrong from the beginning. Our progressivist inheritance from Herbert Spencer, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget. New Haven: Yale University Press. isbn 0300094337


How does Egan describe progressivism?


Egan seems to lean towards constructivism/situationism, making his own psychology a bit less useful. I come across the first clear statement of his ideology on p. 72

For what is the problem with this statement of Egan, see Anderson, Reder & Simon 1998.

  • Check: G. S. L. Tucker (1960). Progress & Profits in British Economic Thought 1650-1850. Cambridge University Press.
  • Herbert Spencer (1857). Progress: Its Law and Cause. [Herbert Spencer: "Progress: Its Law and Causes", The Westminster Review, Vol 67 (April 1857), pp 445-447, 451, 454-456, 464-65] web page Fordham University.
  • Herbert Spencer (1860). Education: Intellectual, moral, and physical. get pdf [“This book originally appeared as four review articles: the first in the Westminster Review, the second in the North British Review, and the remaining two in the British Quarterly Review. I. What is Knowledge Most Worth II. Intellectual Education III. Moral Education IV. Physical Education”]
  • Surprise!
    “Spencer also argued for an increase in mathematics, focused on what students would need in their everyday lives.”

    p 122

    This is exactly the ideology that is playing havoc with Dutch arithmetics teaching and testing, the common core math standards [‘referentieniveaus rekenen’ as they are called in the Netherlands] and the infamous #rekentoets in Dutch exit exams, possibly triggering a major political crisis in the next twelve months.

  • https://twitter.com/rcraigen/status/614116626493870080
  • Sue Gerrard (May 24, 2014). Getting it wrong from the beginning: natural learning. blog.
  • After finishing the last chapter of Egan I came across the following book. Harry C. Barber (1924). Teaching junior high school mathematics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. online Fascinating to see the progressivist issues turn up in the Introduction by Barber. No mention of Spencer or Dewey. Klein is mentioned, is he a progressivist? The term ‘progressive’ is used repeatedly. tweet



    Alphie Kohn (spring 2008). Progressive education. Why it’s hard to beat, but also hard to find. blog


    Kohn sees the following characteristics:



    Park School (). The Principles of Progressive Education webpage




    Progressive Education Network webpage


    Principles:



    Park Day School (). Progressive Education and 21st Century Skills. webpage




    International Journal of Progressive Education webpage




    Scott Nearing (1915?). The New Education A Review of Progressive Educational Movements of the Day (1915) archive.org




    Hilda Taba (1932/1999). The Dynamics Of Education : A methodology of progressive educational thought. Routledge. [eBook KB] [niet in UB Leiden]


    Introduction by William Heard Kilpatrick.



    Herbert Spencer (1928 reprint). Essays on Education and kindred subjects. Dent. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/16510 Gutenberg download


  • The four chapters of which this work consists, originally appeared as four Review-articles: the first in the _Westminster Review_ for July 1859; the second in the _North British Review_ for May 1854; and the remaining two in the _British Quarterly Review_ for April 1858 and for April 1859.

  • Possessed by a superstition which worships the symbols of knowledge instead of the knowledge itself, they do not see that only when his acquaintance with the objects and processes of the household, the streets, and the fields, is becoming tolerably exhaustive--only then should a child be introduced to the new sources of information which books supply: and this, not only because immediate cognition is of far greater value than mediate cognition; but also, because the words contained in books can be rightly interpreted into ideas, only in proportion to the antecedent experience of things. Observe next, that this formal instruction, far too soon commenced, is carried on with but little reference to the laws of mental development. Intellectual progress is of necessity from the concrete to the abstract.

    my emphasis, b.w.

  • And then the culture of the intellect--is not this, too, mismanaged in a similar manner? Grant that the phenomena of intelligence conform to laws; grant that the evolution of intelligence in a child also conforms to laws; and it follows inevitably that education cannot be rightly guided without a knowledge of these laws. To suppose that you can properly regulate this process of forming and accumulating ideas, without understanding the nature of the process, is absurd. How widely,then, must teaching as it is differ from teaching as it should be; when hardly any parents, and but few tutors, know anything about psychology. As might be expected, the established system is grievously at fault, alike in matter and in manner. While the right class of facts is withheld, the wrong class is forcibly administered in the wrong way and in the wrong order. Under that common limited idea of education which confines it to knowledge gained from books, parents thrust primers into the hands of their little ones years too soon, to their great injury. Not recognising the truth that the function of books is supplementary--that they form an indirect means to knowledge when direct means fail--a means of seeing through other men what you cannot see for yourself; teachers are eager to give second-hand facts in place of first-hand facts. Not perceiving the enormous value of that spontaneous education which goes on in early years--not perceiving that a child's restless observation, instead of being ignored or checked, should be diligently ministered to, and made as accurate and complete as possible; they insist on occupying its eyes and thoughts with things that are, for the time being, incomprehensible and repugnant. Possessed by a superstition which worships the symbols of knowledge instead of the knowledge itself, they do not see that only when his acquaintance with the objects and processes of the household, the streets, and the fields, is becoming tolerably exhaustive--only then should a child be introduced to the new sources of information which books supply: and this, not only because immediate cognition is of far greater value than mediate cognition; but also, because the words contained in books can be rightly interpreted into ideas, only in proportion to the antecedent experience of things. Observe next, that this formal instruction, far too soon commenced, is carried on with but little reference to the laws of mental development. Intellectual progress is of necessity from the concrete to the abstract. But regardless of this, highly abstract studies, such as grammar, which should come quite late, are begun quite early. Political geography, dead and uninteresting to a child, and which should be an appendage of sociological studies, is commenced betimes; while physical geography, comprehensible and comparatively attractive to a child, is in great part passed over. Nearly every subject dealt with is arranged in abnormal order: definitions and rules and principles being put first, instead of being disclosed, as they are in the order of nature, through the study of cases. And then, pervading the whole, is the vicious system of rote learning--a system of sacrificing the spirit to the letter. See the results. What with perceptions unnaturally dulled by early thwarting, and a coerced attention to books--what with the mental confusion produced by teaching subjects before they can be understood, and in each of them giving generalisations before the facts of which they are the generalisations--what with making the pupil a mere passive recipient of other's ideas, and not in the least leading him to be an active inquirer or self-instructor--and what with taxing the faculties to excess; there are very few minds that become as efficient as they might be. Examinations being once passed, books are laid aside; the greater part of what has been acquired, being unorganised, soon drops out of recollection; what remains is mostly inert--the art of applying knowledge not having been cultivated; and there is but little power either of accurate observation or independent thinking. To all which add, that while much of the information gained is of relatively small value, an immense mass of information of transcendent value is entirely passed over.



  • Ellen Condliffe Lagemann (2000). An Elusive Science: The Troubling History of Education Research. University of Chicago Press. isbn 0226467724 review short review & 1997 article


    progressivism: xi, 28-29, 100, 139, project method 239, 124-5, 237-8,

    Dewey School 223, 54, curriculum 47-8, 48-51, evaluation of 42, 56; 116-7; origin 21-22; students 115.

    Lincoln School (Teachers College) 223; 99, 112, 116-7, 128; 117-8; 113-8; 119, 126, 146.

    PEA 124-5, 237-8[ 144-50, 154; 102, 220; Eight Year Study 139-44; 139-141.



    David W. Swift (1971). Ideology and change in the public schools. Latent functions of progressive education. Charles E. Merrill. isbn 0675092299




    Gerald Bernbaum (Ed.) (1979). Schooling in decline. The Macmillan Press. isbn 0333232933




    Craig Kridel & Wardlaw Hall (2010). Examining the Educational Film Work of Alice Keliher and the Human Relations Series of Films and Mark A. May and the Secrets of Success Program.




    Teachers and Mentors : Profiles of Distinguished Twentieth-Century Professors of Education Kridel, Craig; Bullough, Jr., Robert V.; Shaker, Paul (Eds.) (1996) [eBook KB]




    Charles Ritchie (). The Eight-Year Study: Can we afford to ignore it? [Reprinted by permission from Wilford M. Aiken. The Story of the Eight-Year Study. Volume 1 of Adventure in American Education. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.. 1942.] pdf




    Charles Dean Chamberlin, Enid Straw Chamberlin, Neal E. Drought, William Edlefsen Scott (1942). ‪Did They Succeed in College?: The Follow-up Study of the Graduates of the Thirty Schools. ‬[Progressive Education Association. Commission on the Relation of School and College] Adventure in American education, vol. IV [library Utrecht] search


    See also Historical Foundations of Educational Psychology geredigeerd door John A. Glover,Royce R. Ronning p. 418 (via books.google) [UBL 6121 A 14 ]



    Robert Peal (2014). Progressively Worse: The burden of bad ideas in British schools. Civitas. info [Peal blogs (answers to criticisms) [I have not seen this book yet, b.w.] critically reviewed & positively reviewed (in fact the foreword to the book).




    Andrew Old (Feb 18, 2016). Denying the debate about progressive and traditional education (Part 1) blog




    Andrew Old (Feb 19, 2016). Denying the debate between progressive and traditional education (Part 2) blog




    Andrew Old (July 29, 2015). The Trendiest Current Arguments For Progressive Education Part 1 blog




    Andrew Old (July 30, 2015). The Trendiest Current Arguments For Progressive Education Part 2 blog




    Bertrand Schneider, Paulo Blikstein (accepted foor publication). Using Exploratory Tangible User Interfaces for Supporting Collaborative Learning of Probability. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies DOI 10.1109/TLT.2015.2448093 www.researchgate.net




    Frank Adamson (Editor), Bjorn Astrand (Editor), Linda Darling-Hammond (Editor) (2016). Global Education Reform: How Privatization and Public Investment Influence Education Outcomes. Routledge. [not yet in KB as eBook] [niet in UBL] info




    Educating Silicon Valley. Posted on March 17, 2016 by Ben Williamson. blog




    Edith Hooge (24 maart 2016). Onderwijs als verbindingspunt van gemeenschapsvorming. pagina


    Edith Hooge vervangt de ene eenzijdige blik door een andere. Dit zijn bewegingen binnen de ideologie van het progressivisme. John Dewey zelf gaf er waarschijnlijk ook alle aanleiding toe: spagaat van voorop stellen van talentontwikkeling naast ontwikkeling sociale identiteit (ik noem het maar even zo, Dewey moet ik nog eens grondig behandelen).



    Craig Sower (2010). Strains of American progressive education. Shujitsu English Studies, 26, 1-54 last draft




    Edward J. Power (1996). Educational philosophy. A history from the ancient world to modern America. New York: Garland Publishing. [PEDAG 11.a.104]