University admissions and access

Annotated references

Ben Wilbrink

Zie ook overgang van voortgezet naar hoger onderwijs overgang van voortgezet naar hoger onderwijs.

Zie ook loten bij numerus-fixusstudies.

Many issues and principles are involved in designing, maintaining and evaluating admissions. A very important class of issues are the practival ones, such procedures, deadlines, availability of examination results, etcetera. One such issue is whether students should apply before their examination results are available, should be allowed to apply early, to change their application after their examination results have come in, etcetera. In the United Kingdom, for example, the question is whether to move to a PQA system, a Post Qualification Admissions system. In the United States there is discussion about the fairness of the privilege allowed some students to apply earlier than other students. In the Netherlands discussion is more principled, the question being discussed whether to implement selective admissions at all. Practical issue number one is here the cost of such admissions procedures, while the predictive validity of these admissions procedures repeatedly proves way too low to justify even the costs. In the UK the costsmust be skyhigh also, the amazing thing is everybody seems to accept them as somehow unavoidable. Of course, it is theoretically possible to replace them with a very cheap lottery procedure, rpoving there must be some room for discussion and research into the issue whether these admissions are cost effective and fair to alle parties involved.

Elena L. Grigorenko, Linda Jarvin, Weihua Niu and David Preiss (2008). Is there a standard for standardized testing? Four sketches of the applicability (or lack thereof) of standardized testing in different educational systems. In Patrick C. Kyllonen, Richard D. Roberts and Lazar Stankov (Eds) (2008). Extending intelligence. Enhancement and new constructs (157-182). Erlbaum. [I do not know of any version that is aailable online]

rijken.maas.ganzeboom.2007.jpg Susanne Rijken, Ineke Maas and Harry B. G. Ganzeboom (2007). The Netherlands: Access to higher education—Institutional arrangements and inequality of opportunity. In Yossi Shavit, Richard Arum and Adam Gamoran: Stratification in higher education. A comparative study. Stanford University Press.

John Sudworth 8 June 2012). China's students take on tough Gaokao university entrance exam. BBC News China site

Charles F. Manski (1989). Schooling as Experimentation: a Reappraisal of the Postsecondary Dropout Phenomenon. Economics of Education Review, 8, 305-312.

Robyn M. Dawes (1975). Graduate admission variables and future success. Science 1975, 187, 721-723.

Robyn M. Dawes (1977). A case study of graduate admissions: Application of three principles of human decision making. American Psychologist, 26, 180-188. Reprint in William B. Fairley and Frederick Mosteller (Eds) (1977). Statistics and public policy (295-308). Amsterdam: Addison-Wesley.

Burton R. Clark (Ed.) (1985). The school and the university. An international perspective. London: University of California Press.

Gerald W. Bracey (2001). Test scores in the long run. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 questia

A. H. Halsey (1991). An international comparison of access to higher education. In David Phillips (1992): Lessons of cross-national comparison in education p. 11-36. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 1. Wallingford: Triangle Books.

A. I. Vroeijenstijn (rapporteur), B. L. A. Waumans and J. Wijmans (1992). International programme review electrical engineering. IPR-EE Committee. Utrecht: VSNU. isbn 9080101516.


Paul R. Sackett, Nathan R. Kuncel, Justin J. Arneson and Sara R. Cooper (2009). Does socioeconomic status explain the relationship between admissions tests and post-secondary academic performance? Psychological Bulletin, 135, 1-22.pdf

Robert Worth (October 25, 2000). For $300 an hour, advice on courting elite schools. The New York Times on the Web National New York Region page or page.

Hannah Friedman (April 19, 2004). When Your Friends Become the Enemy. The battle to get into a good school is so brutal, even the strongest relationships fall apart. Newsweek page. [Karabel 2006 p. 672 note 41]

Wayne J. Camara and Ernest W. Kimmel (Eds) (2005). Choosing students; Higher education admissions tools for the 21st century. Erlbaum.

Nicholas Lemann (1999). The big test. The secret history of the American meritocracy. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.

The College Board (2003). 10 Real SATs. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. isbn 0874477050.

Patricia Conley (1995) The allocation of college admissions. In J. Elster (Ed.) Local justice in America (p. 25-80). New York: Russell Sage.

Na doornemen heb ik het volgende opgetekend: Een machtige berg pseudo-rationele procedures, een hoop willekeur dus, al of niet gemechaniseerd. p. 26 2e a, 1e zin, laatste zin. 3e alinea, controversy. p. 27 onderaan: objectives: desert, equity, efficiency, disparate impact. p. 28 laatste a. + n. 10? p. 30 bovenaan: compensatie! p. 30 e.v. Hoe houd je Joden buiten je school? Oren, joining the club? p. 37 e.v. kopjes p. 39-40 fantastisch citaat, p. 45 onderaan: interviews! p. 50 Tabel 2.3 p. 52 procedures bij zeer selectieve instellingen. p. 63 onderaan. noten: 1, 3, 7, 38, 55, 73. In Lazarsfeld, Pasanella & Rosenberg, p. 58, staat een verwijzing naar een onderzoek over de loopbaan van admission officers: Hauser, Jane Z., & Lazarsfeld, Paul F. (1964). The admissions officer. College Entrance Examination Board.

Conley, P. (1996). Local justice in the allocation of college admissions: a statistical study of beliefs versus practice. Social Justice Research, 9, 239-258. abstract

Rachel Toor (2001). Admissions confidential. An insider's account of the elite college selection process. New York: St Martin's Press. isbn 0312284055.

Ross Gregory Douthat (2005). Privilege. Harvard and the education of the ruling class. New York: Hyperion. isbn 1401301126.

Dominic J. Brewer, Susan M. Gates and Charles A. Goldman (2002). In pursuit of prestige. Strategy and competition in U.S. higher education. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. isbn 076580056X

Jerome Karabel (2005). The chosen. The hidden history of admission and exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Boston: Houghton Mifflin (see site for contents). isbn 9780618574582 or 0618574581.

Derek Bok (2006). Our Underachieving Colleges : A Candid Look at How Much Students Learn and Why They Should Be Learning More. Princeton University Press info.

William G. Bowen, Martin A. Kurzweil and Eugene M. Tobin (Eds) (2005). Equity and excellence in American higher education. University of Virginia Press site. isbn 0813923506.

Empty promises. The myth of college access in America. A Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance Washington, D.C. June 2002. pdf

Edward P. St. John in collaboration with Eric H. Asker (2003). Refinancing the College Dream. Access, Equal Opportunity, and Justice for Taxpayers. The Johns Hopkins University Press. site

Daniel Walfish (January 5, 2001). Chinese Applicants to U.S. Universities Often Resort to Shortcuts or Dishonesty. Students can buy essays, stand-ins for exams, and improper access to standardized tests. The Chronicle of Higher Education International. html

P. J. Bickel, E. A. Hammel & J. W. O’Connell (1975). Sex bias in graduate admissions: Data from Berkeley. Science, 187, 398-404. pdf


Smyth, Emer(2009) 'Buying your way into college? Private tuition and the transition to higher education in Ireland', Oxford Review of Education, 35: 1, 1 — 22

United Kingdom

Stephen Gorard (2008). Who is missing from higher education? Cambridge Journal of Education Vol. 38, No. 3, September 2008, 421–437

Zimdars, Anna (2010) 'Fairness and undergraduate admission: a qualitative exploration of admissions choices at the University of Oxford', Oxford Review of Education, 36: 3, 307 — 323

Alison Godard (February 4, 2005). Bristol admission secrets revealed. The Times Higher Education Supplement html

Jane Mellanby, Mario Cortina-Borja & John Stein (2009). Deep learning questions can help selection of high ability candidates for universities. Higher Education, 57, 597-608.

Admissions to Higher Education Steering Group (2006). Fair admissions to higher education: Recommendations for good practice. [Chair of the Admissions to Higher Education Review: Steven Schwartz] pdf

NFER (2006). A validity study of the use of an aptitude test in university entrance. cfm.

Alan Willmott (2005). Thinking Skills and Admissions. A report on the Validity and Reliability of the TSA and MVAT/BMAT Assessments. Cambridge assessment report. pdf.

Huws, N., Reddy, P. and Talcott, J. (2006). Predicting university success in psychology: The importance of subject specific academic skills. Psychology Learning and Teaching 5 (2), 35-42.pdf

Teresa Tinklin and David Raffe (2001?) Scottish School Leavers Entering Higher Education. pdf

Marion Bowl (2003). Non-Traditional Entrants to Higher Education.

ALASDAIR FORSYTH and ANDY FURLONG (2003). Access to Higher Education and Disadvantaged Young People. British Educational Research Journal, 29, 205-225

Liz Thomas and Jocey Quinn (2007). First generation entry into higher education. An international study.. The Society for Research into Higher Education.

Hefce (2006). Review of widening participation research: addressing the barriers to participation in higher education. pdf
Hefce (2006). How to think about widening participation in UK higher education pdf

Lindsay Paterson (2001). Education and Inequality in Britain. Paper prepared for the social policy section at the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Glasgow, 4 September 2001. pdf

Anna Zimdars, Alice Sullivan & Anthony Heath (2009). Elite Higher Education Admissions in the Arts and Sciences: Is Cultural Capital the Key? Sociology, 43, 648-666.


Ruth Morse (August 27, 2004). Glittering grades do not guarantee greatness. The Times Higher p. 21.


Cheng and Luxia (2006, see below)) give some information on the actual admissions situation in China. The admissions test battery exists of five or six tests, among them Chinese, mathematics and English are compulsory. The number of English test takers in 2004 was 7.23 million. Twenty years ago the selection ration was one in five: 600.000 places for three million candidates. This highly competitive situation necessitated test development on a professional level, the English test was chosen for a pilot project.

Liying Cheng and Luxia Qi (2006). Description and Examination of the National Matriculation English Test Language Assessment Quarterly: An International Journal, 3, 53-70.

James J. Heckman and Xuesong Li (2003). Selection Bias, Comparative Advantage and Heterogeneous Returns to Education Evidence from China in 2000. NBER Working Paper Series pdf


Ann Hendricx en Herman Neuckermans (2001). Het toelatingexamen voor de studies burgerlijk ingenieurarchitect in Vlaanderen. Tijdschrift voor Hoger Onderwijs, 19 pdf


D.N.M. de Gruijter, M. Yildiz en J. 't Hart (2006). VWO-examenresultaten en succes in de propedeuses Geschiedenis en Psychologie. Deelonderzoek van experimenten met selectie: selectie op basis van vooropleidingen. Leiden: ICLON, rapport nr 164.

D. N. M. de Gruijter, M. Yildiz en J. 't Hart (2006). VWO-examenresultaten en succes in de propedeuses Rechten. Leiden: ICLON, rapport nr 165.


Pilz, Matthias(2009) 'Why Abiturienten do an apprenticeship before going to university: the role of 'double qualifications' in Germany', Oxford Review of Education, 35: 2, 187 — 204

Sebastian Braun & Nadja Dwenger (2009). Success in the university admission process in Germany: regional provenance matters. Higher Education, 58, 71-80. site For one or two items you will be allowed to download them as guest. You may search die Literaturdatenbank, though.

Dirk Lewin und Irene Lischka (2004). Passfähigkeit beim Hochschulzugang als Voraussetzung für Qualität und Effizienz von Hochschulbildung. Arbeitsberichte 6'04. ISSN 1436-3550. pdf

Wissenschftsrat (2004). Empfehlungen zur Reform des Hochschulzugangs pdf

Hochschulzugang und -zulassung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland aus rechtlicher Sicht (Legal discussion on access and admission to HE in Germany)./ Gabriele Sandfuchs / Bayerisches Staatsinstitut für Hochschulforschung und Hochschulplanung [IHF][Germany].-- In: Beiträge zur Hochschulforschung, no. 1/2, p. 125-138, 2000. ISSN: 0171-645X CONTENTS: Access and admission to German institutions of HE have been discussed for many years. The opportunities for prospective applicants to select studies and universities are increasingly restricted. In the future, there will be more ways for the institutions of HE to select their students. New admission procedures will be established. [niet gezien, van UNESCO site, in October 2006 no online version (Google, search on title)]

Hartmut von Hentig (1980). Die Krise des Abiturs und eine Alternative. Stuttgart, Ernst Klett.


The admissions process in Spain is a national disaster. Everybody and all institutions are loosing in the process. This is disastrous on a scale than even larger than is the case in the US, and it affects all students seeking entry into higher education institutions. I am looking out for literature on the subject. Any suggestions? Mail them. But see: La selection fait son chemin ... Le Monde de l’Education, janvier 1996, 24-42.

José Díaz Esteve (2001). Hacia la evaluación de la inteligencia académica y del rendimiento escolar. Siencia y Sociedad, 26, 151-203. pdf"> about the procedures to follow for foreign students to gain admission to higher education in Spain.

historical and/or history

Edwin Cornelius Broome (1903/1963 reprint). A historical and critical discussion of college admission requirements. College Entrance Examination Board.

Anderson, R. D. (1989). Education & opportunity in Victorian Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Anderson bestudeert de toegankelijkheid van het onderwijs, de veranderingen in het onderwijs die met veranderingen in die toegankelijkheid samengaan, en hoe een en ander zich afspeelt in de ongemakkelijke relatie tot het Engelse selectieve onderwijsstelsel. Wat bijzonder interessant is: de strijd tussen voorstanders van selectie en degenen die vrije toegankelijkheid (tot publieke kennis etc, tot de universiteit) wilden handhaven (maar dat uiteindelijk wel hebben verloren). Het is helemaal niet zo'n gek idee, zoals Anderson aangeeft, om vandaag de dag nog eens naar de argumenten voor die vrije toegankelijkheid te kijken. Misschien liggen hier toch mogelijkheden om maatschappelijke winst te behalen, nu maatschappelijke omstandigheden zo radicaal anders zijn dan een eeuw geleden waarin de geslotenheid en de bureaucratische eenvormigheid van het universitaire gebeuren zijn beslag kreeg.

Hartmut Sgharfe (2002). Education in ancient India.. Brill. questia Ch. 11: Admission and the Right to Teach and to Study.


Frank Bowles (1963). Access to higher education. Volume 1. The international study of university admissions. Paris: UNESCO. New York: Columbia University Press.

Yossi Shavit, Richard Arum and Adam Gamoran (Eds) (2007). Stratification in higher education. A comparative study. Stanford University Press.

UNESCO has undertaken a new project on access in 2006, see site


John Henry Newman (1858/1946). Het begrip universiteit. I. In negen toespraken gehouden voor de katholieken van Dublin, II In losse voorlezingen en opstellen gericht tot de leden van de Katholieke Universiteit. Bussum: Uitgeverij Paul Brand.

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Kinda F. Wightman (2003) (prepublication draft). Standardized testing and equal access: A tutorial. Chapter 4 in Mitchell J. Chang, Daria Witt, James Jones, and Kenji Hakuta (2003). Compelling interest. Examining the Evidence on Racial Dynamics in Colleges and Universities. Stanford University Press. pdf.

Marcia Graham Synnott (1979). The half-opened door: discrimination and admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900-1970. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Elmer D. West (1963). The United States of America. Access to higher education. Volume II National Studies (pp. 593-648). Paris: UNESCO. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wayne J. Camara en Ernest W. Kimmel (Eds) (2005). Choosing students. Higher education admissions tools for the 21st century. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. isbn 0805847529. Samenvatting, kritische bespreking, links zie

Elite College Discrimination and the Limits of Conflict Theory. Harvard Educational Review, 67, 507-532. abstract

Takeuchi, Y. (1991). Myth and reality in the Japanese educational selection system. Comparative Education, 27, 101-112. abstract

Frank L. Schmidt, John E. Hunter & Kenneth Pearlman (1981). Task differences as moderators of aptitude test validity in selection: a red herring. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 166-187. abstract

M. H. Spratley (1990). Aptitude testing and the selection of dental students. Australian Dental Journal, 35, 159-168. abstract

Robert J. Sternberg , Liane Gabora & Christina R. Bonney (2012). Introduction to the Special Issue on College and University Admissions, Educational Psychologist, 47, 1-4. abstract [This is the introduction to this special issue on university admissions

Guy Neave (Guest Ed.) (1981). Changing links between secondary and higher education. Journal of Education, special issue, 16 #2, 141-252. contents

Besproken landen: Engeland en Wales; Duitsland; Frankrijk; Nederland (Peter Karstanje); Polen; Schotland; Zweden

Access policy and procedures and the law in U.S. higher education. New York: The International Council for Educational Development. 1978. fc van exemplaar departement. Bestaat uit: L. G. Simon: Access to higher education and the law; A. J. Irby: A review of U. S. admissions policies and practices. J. K. Britell & W. B. Schrader: College admissions testing in the United States. S. V. Keochakian: Nonintellectual factors in admissions. p. 42: procedural due process (beroepsrecht bij afwijzing of verwijdering). Gebundeld hiermee: Access to higher education: Two perspectives. A comparative study of the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America. Final report of the German-U.S. study group. 1978. p. 32: For fields in which there is a wide discrepancy between the numbers of applicants and study places, the new system of selectio will assign a substantial proportion of places using a lottery weighted on the basis of Abitur grades.

J. D'E. Firth (not dated, the thirties?). Winchester College. Winchester Publications. [boek zelf is naar Amnesty gegaan]

UCAS (December 2014). End of Cycle Report 2014. UCAS Analysis and Research. pdf or tweet Times Higher Education

Complex picture of Higher Education admissions in the UK

Sherri Miller and Jay Happel (2011). A Role for College Admissions Tests in State Assessment Programs. In James A. Bovaird, Kurt F. Geisinger & Chad W. Buckendahl (Eds.) (2011). High-stakes testing in education. Science and practice in K-12 settings (101-115). American Psychological Association. info

Huisman, Jeroen, Frans Kaiser, and Hans Vossensteyn (2003). The relations between access, diversity and participation: searching for the weakest link? In Malcolm Tight (Ed). Access and exclusion (p. 1-28). Amsterdam: JAI. (PEDAG 40.g.84 Wassenaarseweg). preview

De auteurs gebruiken enkele datasets om globale en algemene vooronderstellingen van toelatingsbeleid voor (initieel) hoger onderwijs te 'testen': (p. 6) ". . . participation rates can be influenced by increasing the level of diversity (either institutional or programmatic), increasing the affordability of higher education (either by cost reduction or benefit extension), and by making systems less restrictive in terms of selection mechanisms." De manier waarop zij deze beleidsveronderstellingen tegen de beschikbare data van verschillende landen testen, is methodologisch onjuist, en levert dan ook niets op: over landen heen correlaties berekenen. Je moet binnen landen over tijd correleren. Dat proberen ze dan alsnog voor 3 landen, Nederland, Finland en Engeland. Voor Nederland onderlijnde het HOOP in de 90-er jaren het belang van een hoge deelname, wat "should be achieved by a larger degree of differentiation of and within studyprogrammes; the programmes should be adjusted to the wishes and needs of individual students." Interessant, dat is juist het streven dat op gespannen voet staat met doeltreffend en doelmatig onderwijs, zoals ik in de gezamenlijke vergadering van COR en CSR van de UvA over het voetlicht heb proberen te krijgen.

Robert Bell & Norman Tight (1995). Open universities in nineteenth century Britain. Open Learning, June 1995, 3-11. preview

Fairley, William B. Fairley & Frederick Mosteller (Eds) (1977). Statistics and public policy. Addison-Wesley. isbn 0201021854

Robyn M. Dawes (1975). Graduate admission variables and future success: we cannot tell whether the standard selection measures used by graduate schools are valid. Science, 187, 721-3.

William B. Schrader (Ed.) (1981). Admissions testing and the public interest. Proceedings of the 1980 ETS Invitational Conference. New Directions for Testing and Measurement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. isbn 875899718

Werner Helsper & Heinz-Hermann Krüger (2015). Auswahlverfahren in Bildungsinstitutionen. Eine Einleitung. (Thementeil) Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 61, 1-7. fc preview

Limburg, J. Limburg (voorzitter) (1936). De toekomst der academisch gegradueerden. Rapport van de Commissie ter bestudeering van de toenemende bevolking van universiteiten en hoogescholen en de werkgelegenheid voor academisch gevormden. Wolters. <

De commissie heeft adviezen gevraagd over de mogelijkheid van selectie door middel van tests, een vraag die ook bij de latere commissie Reinink geprononceerd aanwezig was.

Frank Bowles (1963). Access to higher education. Volume 1. Paris: UNESCO. New York: Columbia University Press. Access to higher education. Volume II National studies. UNESCO and the International Association of Universities. Paris, 1965.

Frank L. Schmidt, Deniz O. Ones & John E. Hunter (1992). Personnel selection. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 43, 627-70. paywalled See also here below

Frank L. Schmidt & John E. Hunter (1998). The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Psychology: Practical and Theoretical Implications of 85 Years of Research Findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262-274. pdf

Fairness in Access to Higher Education in a Global Perspective.Meyer, Heinz-Dieter St. John, Edward P. Chankseliani, Maia (Eds.) 2013 [eBook KB]

Rebecca Zwick (2017) Who Gets In? Strategies for Fair and Effective College Admissions Harvard University Press. info [nog niet gezien]

Why Applying to College Is So Confusing. Rebecca Zwick. ON CAMPUS DEC. 5, 2017. New York Times. blog

Rebacca Zwick (2017). Who Gets In?Strategies for Fair and Effective College Admissions Harvard University Press. isbn=9780674971912 info

Thread: thread

Robert J. Sternberg (2010). College Admissions for the 21st Century Harvard University Press. isbn 9780674048232 review

Elizabet A. Duffy & Idana Goldberg (1998). Crafting a class. College admissions and financial aid 1955-1994. Princeton University Press. isbn 0691016836 info

Theory-Based University Admissions Testing for a New Millennium. Robert J. Sternberg, The Rainbow Project Collaborators, and the University of Michigan Business School Project Collaborators (2018). Educational Psychologist, 39, 185-198. via sci-hub

Dylan Wiliam (2003).

Frederick M. Hess, RJ Martin (June 22, 2018) By dumping SAT requirement, U Chicago risks admissions fairness

Dynarski (june 2018). Does Harvard discriminate against Asians in admissions? Evidence says no, by my reading of the evidence in this case. tweet thread, esp.: links to briefs

William G. Bowen and Derek Bok (1998). The shape of the river. Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. Princeton: Princeton University Press. isbn 0691002746

Messick, D.M., & v.d. Geer, J.P. (1981). A reversal paradox. PB, 90, 582-593. 10.1037/0033-2909.90.3.582 abstract

#Simpson's paradox. Zie ook Ostroff 1993

Cheri Ostroff (1993). Comparing correlations based on individual-level and aggregated data. JAP, 78, 569-582

Joseph T. Kunce & Douglas E. Miller (1974). Correlational anomalies. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 21, 3, 251-253 10.1037/h0036310 abstract

#reversal_paradox #simpson_paradox

Howard Wainer & David Thissen (1994). On examinee choice in educational testing. RER, 64, 159-195 10.2307/1170748

Een wonderlijk artikel. Behandelt misschien in de specifieke context van vrije keuze van examenonderdelen een paar problemen waar ik in mijn proefschrift kritisch over ben: gelijk houden van moeilijkheid van examens, ook onder competitieve condities. Leuk. fc

Fred Hargadon (1981). Tests and college admissions. AP, 36, 1112-1119.

Rune Premfors (1984). Numbers and beyond. Access policy in an international perspective. Journal of Higher Education, 55, 1-18. 10.1080/00221546.1984.11780637 abstract

Gaat over groeiende deelname, verklaringen daarvan, en overheidsbeleid mbt toelating. De uitvoerige slotparagraaf heet Access policy and the problem of meritocracy. p. 15: "By meritocracy in a modern setting, I mean the rule of the highly educated, the certified experts with the proper qualifications from universities and colleges. Governments and private organizations are becoming increasingly dependent upon such experts and their special forms of knowledge.”

Bring back standardized tests - for fairness BY STEVE COHEN, OPINION CONTRIBUTOR - 04/13/21 02:30 PM EDT The Hill blog via Richard Phelps via Marten Roorda

U California system ends use of any admissions tests Nathan M Greenfield 25 November 2021 University World News article

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