Lamprianou, Iasonas(2009) 'Comparability of examination standards between subjects: an international perspective', Oxford Review of Education, 35: 2, 205 — 226

Annotated by Ben Wilbrink (work in progress)

Otterspeer, Willem Otterspeer (1992). De wiekslag van hun geest. De Leidse universiteit in de negentiende eeuw. Stichting Hollandse Historische Reeks.

Norton Smith, Richard Norton Smith (1986). The Harvard century. The making of a university to a nation. Simon and Schuster. isbn 0671460358 — 397 pp, cloth, dj, near mint, € onverkoopbaar (p. 25: "On an 1861 visit the English novelist Anthony Trollope was surprised to find that Harvard had no final examinations, as in his own land, no degrees conferring special honor, no 'firsts,' and no 'senior opts.' \ p. 37 "In 1869 the institution was a university in name only. (…) At the law school, diplomas were little more than certificates of residence. The medical school required no college training for admission; it routinely handed out the license to cure or kill after a year of desultory studies. William James' final examination consisted of a single question put to him by Oliver Wendell Holmes. "If you can answer that," Holmes informed the succesful applicant, "you can answer anything! Now tell me about your family and how things are at home.")

Journal of Educational Measurement Summer 2010, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 150–174 How Often Do Subscores Have Added Value? Results from Operational and Simulated Data Sandip Sinharay

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