Physics education

An inventory

Ben Wilbrink

warning I have not yet sorted out these publications along the lines of science versus pseudo-science. I reckon constructivist research to belong to pseudo-science, unless demonstrated otherwise.
I must confess that it dawned upon me only about 2010 that large sections of research literature on education in fact are not scientific at all, but ideology driven, under an academic cloak. Shame on me. The reason of my bias must have been that the main field of my own work has been university education. University education has not yet been affected that much by constructivist ideology, exceptions being schools of education. In the Netherlands, at least. Psychology, internationally, seems yo have been infected on a rather large scale with constructivist ideologies, the exceptions being hard science psychology groups (cognitive sciences).

My intention in creating these 'education pages' is to assemble materials from several disciplines to investigate how they are handling common sense ideas, folk ideas, naive ideas, whatever they might get called, that are inconsistent with the scientific ideas in that particular discipline. The prime example is the folk physics of pupils that is frustrating their learning the classical mechanics of Newton, while most programs or teachers do not explicitly handle this problem, or even are aware of it. While this kind of problem evidently is frustrating the efficiency of education, it also touches on what is valid assessment of knowledge of physics. Designing physics tests should touch on this issue.

There is a flipside to this kind of issue: there are also intuitions etcetera that are consistent or might be regarded as consistent with scientific ideas. They could be of great significance in education, because they might make it possible to introduce complex ideas much earlier, much simpler. Among others Andrea DiSessa is running some projects along this line, in matheducation. For a more general approach to research on intuitions see for example the work of Gerd Gigerenzer (site).


Physics education
Mathematics education
Life sciences education
Humanitieses education
Language education
conceptual change (paradigm shift)

The inventory will contain studies, web pages etc. that in one way or another might touch on the topic of designing physics test items.

september 2007   Physics is a broad field. In order to reach some efficiency in the study of physics and the design of physics test items, it would be nice to concentrate the efforts on one or two physics topics only. The one subject that seems most suitable to the VIP treatment is that of free fall. The history of the subject, that is until Newton's laws, is available in Dijksterhuis (1924) Fall and throw. A contribution to the history of mechanics from Aristotle until Newton [original in Dutch: Val en worp]. The main results also in Dijksterhuis (1950), available in English translation (1961). An important addition to the work of Dijksterhuis concerning Galileo is Stillman Drake (1990), among others on the times-squared law of distances in fall.
The work of Galileo is indeed a turning point in the science of physics, from natural philosophy to experimental science. From the attempt to find causes of natural phenomena, to the attempt to describe them on the basis of experimental observation. From the use of philosophical language to that of mathematics to do the theorizing.
Free fall is a rather simple concept in modern physics, it should be possible for readers not knowing much or anything of physics, to follow the main examples and arguments. Yet many important epistemological problems in science—and therefore also in education—may be illustrated using free fall. The most important problem being the relation between physics and mathematics. Free fall has something to do with gravitation, yet calling gravitation the cause of free fall is name-calling only. Understanding free fall more or less stops at the description of the phenomena, the most succint description being an appropriate mathematical formula. The danger, then, is to suppose that being able to reproduce this formula or apply it in toy-situations is proof of 'understanding' free fall. Have I made myself clear? I'm afraid not. But then the above is my program of action only.

direct hits

Jonathan Sandoval (1995). Teaching in subject matter areas: Science. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 355-374. abstract

Derek A. Muller, Manjula D. Sharma, John Eklund & Peter Reimann (2007). Conceptual change through vicarious learning in an authentic physics setting. Instructional Science, 35, 519-533. abstract

Christina Stathopoulou and Stella Vosniadou (2007). Conceptual Change in Physics and Physics Related Epistemological Beliefs: A Relationship Under Scrutiny. In S., Vosniadou, A., Baltas and X., Vamvakoussi, (Eds), Re-Framing the Conceptual Change Approach in Learning and Instruction. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series, Elsevier Press. pp.145-165. pdf of concept

Christina Stathopoulou and Stella Vosniadou (2006). Exploring the relationship between physics-related epistemological beliefs and physics understanding. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32, 255-281.

Carol L Smith, Deborah Maclin, Carolyn Houghton and M Gertrude Hennessey (2000). Sixth-Grade Students' Epistemologies of Science: the Impact of School Science Experiences on Epistemological Development. Cognition and Instruction, 18, 349-422.questia

Narumon Emarat and Ian Johnston (2002). The effectiveness of the Thai traditional teaching in the introductory physics course: A comparison with the US and Australian approaches. CAL-laborate, 9, October. html

Hartmut von Hentig (2003). Wissenschaft. Eine Kritik. Hanser. isbn 3446203761

Ronald K. Thornton and David R. Sokoloff (1998). Assessing Student Learning of Newton's Laws: The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation and the Evaluation of Active Learning Laboratory and Lecture Curricula. American Journal of Physics, 66, 338-352.

Refik Dilber, Ibrahim Karaman and Bahattin Duzgun (2009) 'High school students' understanding of projectile motion concepts', Educational Research and Evaluation, 15: 3, 203 - 222

David Hammer & Andrew Elby (2003). Tapping epistemological resources for learning physics. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12, 53-90. abstract

Dedre Gentner and Albert Stevens (1983). Mental Models. Erlbaum questia

Bruce Sherin (2006). Common sense clarified: The role of intuitive knowledge in physics problem solving. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43, 535-55. pdf

Michael McCloskey (1983). Intuitive physics. Scientific American, april, 114-122.

Gary L. Gray, Don Evans, Phillip Cornwell, Francesco Costanzo, Brian Self (2003). Toward a Nationwide Dynamics Concept Inventory Assessment Test. Proceedings of the 2003 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition. pdf

Robyn Arianrhod (2005). Einstein's heroes. Imagining the world through the language of mathematics. Oxford University Press.

To this day every student of elementary physics has to struggle with the same errors and misconceptions which then had to be overcome, and on a reduced scale, in the teaching of this branch of knowledge in schools, history repeats itself every year. The reason is obvious: Aristotle merely formulated the most commonplace experiences in the matter of motion as universal scientific propositions, whereas classical mechanics, with its principle of inertia and its proportionality of force and acceleration, makes assertions which not only are never confirmed by everyday experience, but whose direct experimental verification is impossible .... (p. 30).

Champagne, Gunstone and Klopfer (1985, p. 62), citing from E. J. Dijksterhuis (1951/1969). The mechanization of the world picture. London: Oxford University Press.

David Hestenes, Malcolm Wells, and Gregg Swackhamer (1992). Force Concept Inventory. The Physics Teacher, Vol. 30, 141-158. pdf<

This article describes the Inventory, but it does not show specific items from the instrument. This is important stuff. Especially also the closing section V Overcoming Misconceptions, rea it! Soem quotes from earlier sections:



Deanna Kuhn and Maria Pease (2008). What needs to develop in the development of inquiry skills? Cognition and instruction, 26, 512-559. abstract, pdf's publicaties van Kuhn

Be aware that this is ‘straight’ inquiry, in subjects that allow strong predictions to be made. Kuhn and Pease do not consider weaker forms of explanation, such as Jon Elster's mechanisms, or problems of radical change from naive conceptions to scientific ones (f.e. Hestenes).

Jon Elster (1999). Alchemies of the mind. Rationality and the emotions. Cambridge University Press.


"Misconceptions result from commitments to an inappropriate ontology. In learning about the concept of 'heat,' for example, many children assume a material substance ontology, perhaps because of language such as 'close the door, you're letting all the heat out.' However, in the scientifically normative view, the conccept of heat is associated with a process ontology, as it involves the transfer of kinetic energy between molecules (Slotta, Chi, & Joram, 2005). Unfortunately, once an ontological commitment is made with respect to a concept, it is difficult through any stages of mental transformation to change one's fundamental conception from a substance to a process (Chi & Roscoe, 2002). Thus, ontologically misattributed concepts would require an extraordinary process of conceptual change." [Slotta and Chi, 2006, p. 263]

Slotta and Chi (see below) articulate some special characteristics of the 'conceptual change' that Dijksterhuis, Hestenes, and others describe as a crucial event in the indidual student's physics education. The key idea is that important physics concepts are emergent processes, yet they figure as material substances in folk physics. One way or another, instruction will have to deal with the folk physics of students. Recent research by Slotta and Chi (2006, see below) implements a possible instructional method. The method is highly remarkable because it suggest that traditional instruction might yet be adequate, provided it is preceded by special instruction into what emergent processes are. In the Slotta and Chi method no attempt is made to change concepts. In their view it probably is not even possible to change from the inappropriate material substances concepts to those of emergent processes, there is an abyss between the two that can not be 'bridged' by gradual steps of change.
Physics education will have to deal with the Slotta and Chi research, one way or another, accepting or rejecting it - on the basis of adequate research, of course. See also the Bedau and Humphreys reader (below)

Mark A. Bedau and Paul Humphreys (Eds) (2008). Emergence. Contemporary readings in philosophy and science. MIT Press.

Paul E. Meehl and Wilfrid Sellars (1956). The concept of emergence. In Herbert Feigl and Michael Scriven: Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume I: The Foundations of Science and the Concepts of Psychology and Psychoanalysis (pp. 239-252). University of Minnesota Press. html

James D. Slotta and Michelene T. H. Chi (2006). Helping students understand challenging topics in science through ontology training. Cognition and Instruction, 24, 261-289. pdf

Samuel B. Day & Robert L. Goldstone (2011). Analogical transfer from a simulated physical system. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 551-567. abstract

Michael J. Jacobson and Robert B. Kozma (Eds) (2002). Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education. Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning. Erlbaum. questia,

N. David Mermin (2005). It’s about time: Understanding Einstein’s relativity.. Oxford University Press.

Slotta, J.D., & Chi, M.T.H. (1996). Understanding constraint-based processes: A precursor to conceptual change in physics. In G.W. Cottrell (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 306-311). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. questia

Slotta, J. D., Chi, M.T.H., Joram, E. (1995). Assessing students' misclassifications of physics concepts: An ontological basis for conceptual change. Cognition and Instruction, 13, 373-400. pdf

Chi, M.T.H. (1993). Barriers to conceptual change in learning science concepts: A theoretical conjecture. In W. Kintsch (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference (pp. 312-317). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. questia

Michelene T. H. Chi and James D. Slotta (1993). The Ontological Coherence of Intuitive Physics. Cognition and Instruction, 10, 249-261. questia

Andrea A. Disessa (1993). Toward an Epistemology of Physics. Cognition and Instruction, 10, 105-225. questia

Andrea A. Disessa (1982). Unlearning Aristotelian physics: A study of knowledge-based learning. Cognitive Science, 6, 37-76. pdf

Lei Bao and Edward F. Redish (2006). Model analysis: Representing and assessing the dynamics of student learning. Physics Education Research, 2. pdf

Mark P. Silverman (1998). Waves and grains. Reflections on light and learning. Princeton University Press.

Audrey B. Champagne, Richard F. Gunstone and Leopold E. Klopfer (1985). Instructional consequences of students' knowledge about physical phenomena. In Leo H. T. West and A. Leon Lines: Cognitive structure and conceptual change (pp. 61-90). Academic Press.

Ibrahim Abou Halloun and David Hestenes (1985a). The initial knowledge state of college physics students. Am. J. Phys. 53 (11) 1043-1048. pdf. And
Ibrahim Abou Halloun and David Hestenes (1985b). Common sense concepts about motion. Am. J. Phys. 53 (11), 1056-1065. pdf.

Jonathan Tuminaro (2004). A cognitive framework for analyzing and describing introductory students' use and understanding of mathematics in physics. Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park. pdf

David Hammer (2000). Student resources for learning introductory physics. American Journal of Physics, Physics Education Research Supplement, 68, 52-59. html

Jennifer G. Cromley and Robert J. Mislevy (2005). Task Templates Based on Misconception Research. PADI | Principled Assessment Designs for Inquiry, Technical Report 6. pdf

David Hammer and Andrew Elby (2003). Tapping epistemological resources for learning physics. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12, 53-90. paper pdf

CIPS Constructing Ideas in Physical Science site

Nancy J. Nersessian (1995). Should Physicists Preach What They Practice? Constructive Modeling in Doing and Learning Physics. Science & Education, 4, 203-226. pdf

Axel Sander Westra (2006). A new approach to teaching and learning mechanics. Dissertation Utrecht University. html

University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group. Dissertations page (indivicual chapters downloadable).

E. F. Redish, Jack M. Wilson and Chad McDaniel (1992) The CUPLE Project: A Hyper- and Multimedia Approach to Restructuring Physics Education. In Edward Barrett: Sociomedia. Multimedia, hypermedia, and the social construction of knowledge (pp. 219-256) Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. [nowhere online]

James D. Slotta and Marcia C. Linn (2000). The Knowledge Integration Environment: Helping Students Use the Internet Effectively. In Michael J. Jacobson and Robert B. Kozma: Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education: Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning.. Erlbaum. questia

Bernard d'Espagnat (2006). On physics and philosophy. Princeton University Press.

Project Galileo site

John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking (Eds) (1999). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. National Research Council. html.

Susan Carey (1986). Cognitive science and science education. American Psychologist, 41, 123-1130.

S. Carey and C. Smith (1993). On understanding the nature of scientific knowledge. Educational Psychologist, 28, 235-251. pdf

Susan Carey and Elizabeth Spelke (1996). Science and core knowledge. Philosophy of Science, 63, 515-533.

S. Johnson and Susan Carey (1998). Knowledge enrichment and conceptual change in folkbiology: Evidence from Williams Syndrome. Cognitive Psychology, 37, for a copy.

Susan Carey (2000). Science education as conceptual change. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21, 13-19. site for a copy.

Smith, C., Maclin, D., Grosslight, L., & Davis, H. (1997). Teaching for understanding: A study of students’ pre-instruction theories of matter and a comparison of the effectiveness of two approaches to teaching about matter and density. Cognition and Instruction, 17, 317-393.

Vosniadu, S., & Brewer, W. F. (1992). Mental models of the earth: A study of conceptual change in childhood. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 35-585.

Wellman, H. M.,&Gelman, S. A. (1992). Cognitive development: Foundational theories of core domains. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 37-375.

Feyerabend, P. (1962). Explanation, reduction, and empiricism. In H. Feigl & G. Maxwell (Eds.), Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science 3, (pp. 28-97). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Shirley J. Magnusson and Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar (2005). Teaching to Promote the Development of Scientific Knowledge and Reasoning About Light at the Elementary School Level. online te lezen In: How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom. Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences and Education (BCSSE) Edward F. Redish, Jeffery M. Saul, and Richard N. Steinberg (1998). Student Expectations in Introductory Physics. html. Probably the same paper published in the American Journal of Physics -- March 1998 -- Volume 66, Issue 3, pp. 212-224.

L. Viennot (1979). Spontaneous reasoning in elementary dynamics. European Journal of Science Education, 1, 205-221.

Laurence Viennot (1996/2001). Reasoning in physics: the part of common sense. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Original French title: Raisonner en physique: la part du sens commun. [ I have not yet located a copy of the book ]

Martine M&eacute;heut (2006?). Science teaching in schools in Europe. Policies and research. European Commission: Directorate-General for Education and Culture: Eyridice. Translated and commenten on by Edgar Jenkins, University of Leeds. Martine M&eacute;heut is professor at the Institut Universitaire de Formation des Ma&icirc;tres de l'acad&eacute;mie de Cr&eacute;teil.

Igal Galili and Amnon Hazan (2000). Learners' knowledge in optics: interpretation, structure and analysis. INT. J. SCI. EDUC., 22, NO. 1, 57- 88. pdf

Carl Angell (). Exploring students' intuitive idas based on physics items in TIMSS - 1995. Department of Physics, University of Oslo pdf

Rolf Ploetzer and Kurt VanLehn (1997). The acquisition of qualitative physics knowledge during textbook-based physics training. Cognition and Instruction, 15, 169-205. JSTOR

Michelene T. H. Chi & Kurt A. VanLehn (1991). The content of physics self-explanations. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 1, 69-105. pdf


David Halliday, Robert Resnick & Jearl Walker (2001 6th). Fundamentals of Physics. Extended. John Wiley. isbn 0471392227 College-level physics. More info: Wiki

I think I'd like this book, if I had to study physics: short but clear exposition, clever figures, nice illustrations. Some 1145 pp in quarto format. Recent editions (2013: 10th) very much more, though!

Gita Taasoobshirazi & Martha Carr (2009). A structural equation model of expertise in physics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 630-643. pdf

Robert Carlson, Paul Chandler & John Sweller (2003). Learning and Understanding Science Instructional Material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 629-640.


website met actuele dossiers: leraar24 natuurkunde

Tijdschrift voor Didactiek der β-wetenschappen, 27, nr. 1 & 2. Themanummer transdisciplinair vakdidactisch onderzoek: wiskundige verbanden in de natuurwetenschappen als casus. inhoudsopgave.

Cees Terlouw, Henny Kramers-Pals & Albert Pilot (2004). Over het leren aanpakken van eindexamenopgaven bij scheikunde in het voortgezet onderwijs. Tijdschrift voor Didactiek van β-Wetenschappen. pdf

F. A. B. H. Bos, C. Terlouw & A. Pilot (2008). Het effect van een sensitivering door een pretest op de verwerving van natuurwetenschappelijke begrippen. Tijdschrift voor Didactiek der β-Wetenschappen, 25, 25-50. pdf

Piet Lijnse (2008). Modellen van/voor leren modelleren. Tijdschrift voor Didactiek der β-Wetenschappen, 25, 3-24. pdf

TIMSS opgaven 2008 (TIMSS Advanced 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Released items physics) pdf hier downloaden

Advies Nieuwe Natuurkunde 2010 pdf hier downloaden

Natuurkunde leeft. Visie op het vak natuurkunde in havo en vwo. Commissie Vernieuwing Natuurkundeonderwijs havo/vwo. pdf

H. Schalk (2006). Zeker weten? Leren de kwaliteit van biologie-onderzoek te bewaken in 5 vwo. Proefschrift Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. web / pdf

B. J. B. Ormel (2010). Het natuurwetenschappelijk modelleren van dynamische systemen. Naar een didactiek voor het voortgezet onderwijs. Proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht. download pdf

HBO-Raad (17 december 2009). Kennisbasis lerarenopleiding voortgezet onderwijs beta-studies. pdf

Nederlandse Vereniging voor het Onderwijs in de Natuurwetenschappen. Natuurwetenschap voor de basisschool. Proevenboek. Een uitgave van de bestuurscommissie 'Onderbouw' van de NVON. Meegezonden bij Didaktief, 2008, jaargang 38, #4. Bij het proevenboek hoort een in kleur uitgevoerd lesboek. Voor informatie over deze boekjes mail a.nienkemper at/apenstaart De boekjes zijn vriendschappelijk geprijsd.

Commissie Vernieuwing Natuurkundeonderwijs havo/vwo site.

Sander Bais (2005). De natuurwetten. Iconen van onze kennis. Amsterdam University Press.

Leo Molenaar (2003). Marcel Minnaert astrofysicus 1893-1970. De rok van het universum. Balans / Van Halewyck.

D. W. Vaags (1975). Over het oplossen van technische problemen. Proefschrift T.H. Eindhoven. pdf

Monica Ferguson-Hessler (1989). Over kennis en kunde in de fysica. Een studie van de cognitieve aspecten van het leren en doceren van natuurkunde. proefschrift TU Eindhoven. pdf

A. J. Treffers (1968). Biologieonderwijs in de Sowjet Unie, de Verenigde Staten en Nederland. Wolters-Noordhoff. Proefschrift UvA

Miranda, J. de (1955). — Verkenning van de ‘Terra Incognita’ tussen practijk en theorie in middelbaar (scheikunde-) onderwijs. — Wolters. Proefschrift Utrecht.

Axel Sander Westra (2006). A new approach to teaching and learning mechanics. Dissertation Utrecht University. html (startpagina) or 10 Mb pdf - samenvatting [summary in Dutch]

J. van Westrhenen (1976). Aardrijkskundige onderwijsdoelen. Een onderzoek naar de feitelijk nagestreefde, cognitieve leerdoelen van arrdrijkskunde in het M.A.V.O., H.A.V.O. en V.W.O. Proefschrift UvA.

A. N. Borghouts (1962/1976) Inleiding in de mechanica. Delftsche Uitgevers Maatschappij.

Isaac Newton (1687). Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica pdf in delen LONDINI, Jussu Societatis RegiƦ ac Typis Josephi Streater. Prostat apud plures Bibliopolas. Anno MDCLXXXVII. (EBook produced by Jonathan Ingram, Keith Edkins and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at Latin text (scan + transcription)

H. J. E. Beth (1932). Newton's 'Principia.' deel I, II. Groningen: Noordhoff. [in Dutch]

TIMMS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Nederlandse site



Volker Hagemeister (2000). Irrwege und Wege zur 'Testkultur.' Kann die 'empirische Wende' zur Qualit&auml;tssicherung beitragen? Die Deutsche Schule, 92, 1, 87-101. pdf


Eric Jorink & Ad Maas (Eds.) (2012). Newton and the Netherlands. How Isaac Newon was fashioned in the Dutch Republic. Leiden University Press. Download free pdf here.

Wayne W. Welch (1979). Twenty years of science curriculum development: A look back. In D. C. Berliner (Ed.) (1979). Review of research in education volume 7 - 1979 (282-307). Peacock Publishers. first page

D. A. Wells (1967). Lagrangian dynamics. Schaum's Outlines. 24th impression, isbn 070692580.

William D. Hedges (1966). Testing and evaluation for the sciences in the secondary school. Wadsworth. lccc66-13465, 248 pp. paperback, from the library of Milton Sobel

Savelsbergh (1998). Improving mental representations in physics problem-solving. Dissertation Twente University. pdf

Edward F. Redish and John R. Risley (Eds) (1990). Computers in physics instruction. Amsterdam: Addison-Wesley.

Andr&eacute;e Tiberghien, E. Leonard Jossem, Jorge Barojas (Eds) (1998). Connecting Research in Physics Education with Teacher Education . An I.C.P.E. Book. pdf

Adrienne T. Gibson (2007). Understanding teacher understanding: An ethical challenge. in P. C. Taylor & J. Wallace: Contemporary Qualitative Research: Exemplars for Science and Mathematics Educators. Springer. (p. 23-32)

CPU Constructing Physics Understanding site

TIMMS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study: International site

Salters Horner Advanced Physics site

B. L. Young (1979/2005). Teaching primary science. Longman.

“This book is desgned for use mainly in tropical countries where equipment and resources are limited.”.

The didactics are wholly inadequate for youngsters in primary education, as the next quotation shows. Wholly context-directed

J. H. Mandleberg (1952). Physical chemistry made plain. An aid for intermediate students and others. London: Cleaver-Hume Press.

B. White and J. Frederiksen (2000). Metacognitive facilitation: An approach to making scientific inquiry accessible to all. In J. Minstrell and E. van Zee Inquiring into Inquiry Learning and Teaching in Science (pp. 331-370). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2000.

E. J. Dijksterhuis (1951/1969). The mechanization of the world picture. London: Oxford University Press.

Gerald Holton (1953). Introduction to concepts and theories in physical science. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

John P. Keeves (Ed.) (1992). The IEA study of science III: Changes in science education and achievement: 1970 to 1984. International Studies in Educational Achievement. Pergamon Press.

T. Neville Postlethwaite and David E. Wiley (Eds) (1992). The IEA study of science II: Science achievement in twenty-three countries. International Studies in Educational Achievement. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Edward F. Redish and John R. Risley (Eds) (1990). Computers in physics instruction. Amsterdam: Addison-Wesley. (themes: the computer's impact on the physics curriculum - physics computer simulations - computers in the physics laboratory - physics education research and computers- computational physics and spreadsheets - computer tutorials in physics - - physics lecture demonstrations using computers - authoring tools and programming languages - computer utilities for teaching physics - computer networking and workshops - publishing physics software - videodiscs and visualization for physics)

Gabel, D.L. (edit.) Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning.

Fuerzeig, W. & N. Roberts (Eds.) Computer Modeling and Simulation in Science and Mathematics Education, Springer

N. Thompson (Ed) (1987). Thinking like a physicist. Physics problems for undergraduates. Adam Hilger.

Roger Penrose (2004). The road to reality. A complete guide to the physical universe. BCA.

Michael L. Scott, Tim Stelzer, Gary E. Gladding (2006). Evaluating multiple-choice exams in large introductory physics courses. Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 2, 020102 , (2006). abstract and/or pdf

This article is a perfect illustration of the psychometrics misconception. 'Consistent ranking' does not prove anything, of course. The number of fire fighters and the seriousness of fires are higly correlated, so ...... ? This article is a bunch of crap. It's a pity content never seems to have been considered seriously. In appendix C: Final exams questions used in the validity study.



Walter Lewin (2012). Gek op natuurkunde. Van het begin van de regenboog tot het einde van de tijd: Een reis langs de wonderen van de wetenschap. Thomas Rap. isbn 9789400401341

E. J. Dijksterhuis (1924). Val en worp. Een bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der mechanica van Aristoteles tot Newton. Groningen: Noordhoff.

E. J. Dijksterhuis (1892-1965). Clio's stiefkind. Bundel samengesteld door K. van Berkel. Bert Bakker. html op

Henk A. Klomp (1997). De relativiteitstheorie in Nederland. Breekijzer voor democratisering in het interbellum. Utrecht: Epsilon Uitgaven. handelsuitgave van proefschrift RU Groningen.

K. van Berkel (1985). In het voetspoor van Stevin. Geschiedenis van de natuurwetenschap in Nederland 1580-1940. Boom. html op

J. Duursma en L. Lammerse (1928). Natuurkunde I. Arnhem: Ten Brink's Uitgeverij. met antwoordenboekje.


Carleton W. Washburne (1921). Common science. World Book Company. html

Roger N. Shepard (2008). The step to rationality: The efficacy of thought experiments in science, ethics, and free will. Cognitive Science, 32, 3-35.

E. J. Dijksterhuis (1950/1961). The mechanization of the world picture. London: Oxford University Press.

Andrew Warwick (2003). Masters of Theory: Cambridge and the Rise of Mathematical Physics. University of Chicago Press. review by Kathryn M. Olesko, American Scientist online May-June 2004

McNeill, K. L. Lizotte, D.J., Krajcik, J., & Marx, R.W. (in press). Supporting Students' Construction of Scientific Explanations By Fading Scaffolds in Instructional Materials. The Journal of the Learning Sciences. pdf

Barbara Y. White: Intermediate Causal Models: A Missing Link for Successful Science Education?. In Robert Glaser (Ed.) (19**). Advances in instructional psychology, volume 4. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum. questia

I. Bernard Cohen (Ed.) (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Cambridge University Press. questia

Russell McCormmach (2004). Speculative truth. Henry Cavendish, natural philosophy, and the rise of modern theoretical science. Oxford University Press. questia (the concepts of heat and of temperature; a newly found, long missing, unpublished manuscript containing his first theory of heat, approximately from 1790)

Kathryn M. Olesko (1991). Physics as a calling. Discipline and practice in the Königsberg Seminar for Physics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Roy MacLeod (Ed.) (1982). Days of judgement. Science, Examinations and the Organization of Knowledge in Late Victorian England. Nafferton Books (Driffield).

Graeme Gooday (1990). Precision Measurement and the Genesis of Physics Teaching Laboratories in Victorian Britain', British Journal for the History of Science, 23, (1990), 25-51 (revised version of BSHS 'Singer Prize' paper). [not seen yet]


Nederland. Een startpagina natuurkunde:

Research in Science Education site. This is a SpringerLink journal. I do not have access. However, Springer follows an open access policiy, so some of the articles are open access. Try your luck.

Journal of Research in Science Teaching html

International Journal of Science Education pdf

International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education html

Journal of Engineering Education,

J. of Science Education and Technology,

European Journal of Science Education does not currently have a website.

Science Education

PADI Principled Assessment Designs for Inquiry site

Physical Sciences Centre site

Frontiers in Education Clearing House site. Sponsored by ASEE Educational Research and Methods Division, IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Education Society. This homepage provides links to American as well as international engineering education sites. The Frontiers in Education Conferences proceedings are available online (down to 1995).

Gardner, Howard Gardner (1991). The unschooled mind. How children think and how schools should teach. Basic Books. isbn 0465088953 — 303 pp., halfcloth, dust jacket, near mint — info

August 6, 2016 \ contact ben at at at

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